Progressive Awareness Research

Improving Lives One Person at a Time since 1984.

Subliminal Literature: Bibliography and Review


Peripheral Desk Reference T

Tabin, J. K. and C. J. Tabin (1987). "An alternative interpretation of oneness." American Psychologist 42(10): 954-955.

An alternative proposal for Silverman and Weinberger's interpretation of the effects of SPA is provided.


Talbot, N. L. (1991). The effects of a subliminally presented dependency-related message on the food consumption and confidence of anaclitic and control subjects, State U New York, Buffalo, US.


Talbot, N. L., P. R. Duberstein, et al. (1991). "Subliminal psychodynamic activation, food consumption, and self-confidence." Journal of Clinical Psychology 47(6): 813-823.

Studied the effect of the SPA method. Results support semantic analysis at an unconscious level. Subjects shown the message "Mommy is Leaving Me" ate fewer crackers than subjects shown the message "Mona is Loaning It."


Taris, L.J. (1970). Subliminal perception: An experimental study to determine whether a science concept can be taught subliminally to fourth grade pupils. Boston University School of Education. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31 (5-A), p. 2199.

Louis Taris performed this study in order to;

1) determine experimentally whether a subject matter concept can be taught subliminally to fourth grade pupils, and

2) determine the relative influence, if any, of sex, I.Q., reading comprehension (paragraph meaning), and vocabulary (word meaning) as well as socio-economic status and motivation upon subliminal learning , if subliminal learning was found to occur.

The results obtained indicated that it was unlikely that subliminal learning had occurred.


Taylor, E. (1986). Holistic approach to hypnosis. Attain, St. John's University, Springfield, LA.

Eldon Taylor discusses how subliminal communication can be used as a therapeutic tool in hypnotherapeutic interventions.


Taylor, E. (1987). Cancer Remission. Mind Mint Memo: Salt Lake City. Just Another Reality Publishing.

Eldon Taylor describes a case history where the use of subliminal audio tapes aided cancer remission. The subject in this single n report describes a sexual guilt that precedes the onset of prostrate cancer. The interdiction is based on removing the guilt and thereby relieving the need for self inflicted punishment.


Taylor, E. (1987). Subliminal Technology, Boulder City, NV. Just Another Reality Publishing, 14 pages.

Eldon Taylor discusses technical aspects of subliminal audio cassettes both from the perspective of mechanical applications such as db differentials and from the perspective of differeing message types. He suggests that there exist in the psychodynamic literature a basis to employ so-called magical messages such as Silverman's SPD mommy message. He refers to unpublished work of his own that favors a "forgiveness set" of messages that include, "I forgive myself, I am forgiven, I forgive all others."


Taylor, E. (1987). The symbiotic as a merging with archetype oneness as opposed to Silverman's personal mommy merging. Paper presented at Riverton College, Riverton, Wyo. (Transcript available from Progressive Awareness Research).


Taylor, E.
(1988). Subliminal stimuli as an intervention treatment for sex offenders: A case study. Presentation of findings using subliminal stimuli on pedophiliacs at the Utah State Prison to Psychologists and Social staff.

Eldon Taylor described a case study that consisted of a number of sex offenders, incarcerated at the Utah State Prison.
For this study, Taylor explained the theory of subliminal communication to the inmates and then asked them to write their own affirmations.
All of the offenders reported;

1) the fear of women,

2) the belief that women disliked them,

3) their physiological response to children, and

4) their fantasies with children.

A composite program incorporating the statements written by the inmates (eg. "women like me", etc.) were subliminally implanted in the music audio tapes.
Pre- and post-plethysmographic measurement indicated a significant decrease in sexual response to stimuli associated with children following 30 hours exposure to the subliminal stimuli.

Taylor suggests that further studies are appropriate utilizing subliminal stimuli to alter condition response mechanisms that may be present in pedophiliacs, and to alter fantasy formations around children by removing unnatural fears of women, and therefore, the apparent sublimation process that directs sexual drive towards children.


Taylor, E. (1988). Subliminal Learning: An Eclectic Approach. Just Another Reality Publishing.

Taylor reports on clinical interventions employing subliminal audio technology. Cases include mall seizures and degenerative muscle conditions.
Taylor suggests some contraindications to the use of subliminal stimuli.
Also covered in this book are subliminal findings in the sports arena, scientific literature review, accommodating subliminal information processing within existing paradigms of health care, minimum standards for audio subliminal experimental replications and a model of holonomic information registration.


Taylor, E. (1988). Subliminal stimuli as a voluntary modality for rehabilitation in a prison environment. Presentation made to the Psych and Social workers at the Utah State Prison.

Eldon Taylor discussed;

1) the voluntary use on a reward system,

2) pre and post-test instruments,

3) selection of stimuli content, and

4) record keeping.


Taylor, E. (1989). Technical method of tape production. Patent No: 07440244, United States Patent Office.

Eldon Taylor filed this patent for creating whole brain InnerTalk subliminal audio tapes.
The patent includes 105 claims.


Taylor, E. (1989). How to use subliminal stimuli for therapeutic interventions. Paper presented to the National College of Hypnosis and Psychotherapy, Chester, England. (Available on tape from Progressive Awareness Research.)

Eldon Taylor states that fear of rejection conditions most of our responses.
He explains how detailed histories of significant life events etc. can be used to prepare affirmations which the therapist can use to create a custom subliminal for the client.


Taylor, E. "Technical Recovery Of Subliminal Information From Audio Cassettes." Bremen University, Bremen, West Germany, September 19, 1989.


Taylor, E. (1990). Die Subliminal Methode: Lernen Mit Dem Unterbewusstsein. Published by Goldmann Verlag. Language: GERMAN.

Eldon Taylor discusses the controversy of subliminal communication and it's effectiveness as a self improvement tool.


Taylor, E. (1990). Subliminal Communication: Emperor's Clothes or Panacea? (Revised edition). Boulder City, NV. Just Another Reality Publishing.

Eldon Taylor reported on the use of subliminal self-help audio cassettes.
Topics include laws, legislation, history, usage and the "Home made " subliminal.
Taylor reviews clinical data, anecdotal information and one of his double blind studies conducted at the Utah State Prison.


Taylor, E. (1990). The forgiveness set in therapy. Paper presented to the American Board of Hypnotherapy, Sixth annual convention, Garden Grove, CA.
Eldon Taylor explains the importance of the forgiveness set and its effectiveness when used subliminally.
He asserts that three messages alone can measurably reduce rejection orientated pathologies;

1) "I forgive myself",

2) "I forgive all others", and

3) "I am forgiven".


Taylor, E. (1990). The effect of subliminal auditory stimuli in a surgical setting involving anesthetic requirements. St. John's University, Springfield, Louisiana. Doctoral Dissertation.

This study explored the effect of subliminal auditory stimuli in lowering anesthetic requirements in surgery.

An exact methodology was technically devised to make replication possible.
The study utilized 360 surgical patients of a plastic surgeon and was conducted over an 18 month period.

Each subject was exposed to verbal stimuli presented below the threshold of awareness.
The method of verification of findings was based on general anesthetic levels compared to a history of 360 preceding patients (the control group).
All subjects were advised that a "positive message" subliminal would be played pre operatively, intra-operatively and post-operatively.
The programs were utilized an average of three relevant hours by the patient population.
Results indicate that verbal messages presented subliminally did lower anesthetic requirements during surgery by 32%, building upon and replicating the work of Hess (1981).
This study suggests that subliminal auditory messages could be employed successfully as an ancillary aid in medical interventions,


Taylor, E. "A Cognitive Model Explaining Reverse Speech Phenomena and Information Processing". Munich, Germany, February 4, 1991. A paper based presentation sponsored by Edition Kraftpunkt to psychology and medical professionals.


Taylor, E. "Belief and Wellness." Health Consciousness, Oviedo, Fl. May 1994.

Reports on recent research and suggests a effect on health due to beliefs that are often the result of socialized expectations.


Taylor, E. "New Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treats Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder." The International Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine, Surry, United Kingdom. October, 1994.

Reports the results of a study with children diagnosed as ADD and ADHD. Results show a significant decrease in symptomology following 30 days of exposure to a subliminal stimuli. Discusses subliminal stimuli in the context of cognitive behavioral modification.


E. Taylor, "The Role of Belief and Memory in Health and Recovery. Paper and presentation, Colegio Mexicano De Medicina Familiar, AC, Mexico City, Oct. 1998.

Asserts evidence for a direct connection between the memory of wellness and recovery. Discusses the latest findings in PNI research. Stresses the impact simple subliminal stimuli can have on favorably altering beliefs and facilitating health memories.


Taylor, E. & Albini, J. (1990). A protocol for the mental training and coaching of athletes. Journal of Hypnotic Anesthesiology.

Eldon Taylor and Joseph Albini use case studies of Olympic athletes and championship teams to factor backwards their success with hypnosis, subliminal audio stimuli and "focus" training.

Measures of traits, personality, motor skill and actual field results are correlated.
The authors insist that mental training requires at least as sophisticated a system of methodology as physical training.
They assert that failures to replicate Eastern Block success have been due to;

1) absence of a western model to fit the technology within,

2) lack of systematic application,

3) failure to understand the mental methods of athletes,

4) inappropriate use or design,

5) insufficient adequacy on the part of the researcher and/or the technicians employing the methods.


Taylor, E., McCusker, C. & Liston, L. (1986). A study of the effects of subliminal communication on inmates at the Utah State Prison. Study taken from the book Subliminal Communication, Emperor's Clothes Or Panacea?, pp 46-48 and 93-99. Just Another Reality Publishing. ISBN: 0-940699-01-X.

Eldon Taylor, Charles McCusker and Lee Liston carried out this study at the Utah State Prison.

Thirty-eight residents completed the MMPI and Thurstone Temperament Schedule in a voluntary study.
The subjects were then randomly placed into three groups. The experimental group played the subliminal tape for twenty days, the placebo group played a similar sounding tape but without the embedded subliminal messages while the control group had no tape exposure.
At the end of the twenty days, the subjects were again administered the Thurstone Temperament Schedule.
The results indicated a decrease in the Dominance scale scores and an increase in the Reflective and Stability scale scores for the experimental group. The opposite results were obtained from the control group.
The results indicate change and suggest strongly the need for further research.


Taylor, E. and McCusker, C. "The Use of Subliminal Auditory Stimulus With Terminally Ill Oncology Patients." The Journal of Alterative Medicine, U.K. January, 1995.

Reports on the use of subliminal stimuli with terminally ill oncology patients. Results show a significant remission rate. Discusses secondary findings including the role of the health care providers attitude in recovery.


Theus, K. T. (1994). "Subliminal advertising and the psychology of processing unconscious stimuli: A review of research." Psychology & Marketing 11(3): 271-290.

Discusses and reviews subliminal effects on populations and potential applications.


Thierfelder, W. K. (1990). The effect of subliminal auditory stimuli on reaction time, heart rate, electrodermal response and word recognition speed, Boston U, MA, US.


Thompson, A.H., Dewar, R.E. & Franken, R.E. (1971). A test of the set disruption interpretation of perceptual defense. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 25 (3), pp 222-227. ISSN: 0008-4255.

Thornton, J.W. (1987). A test of subliminal symbiotic activation as a means of alleviating depression. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 4 (4), pp 335-342.

Evaluated the effect of SPA and SPA-like messages with 36 depressives. Subjects recieving the SPA message significantly decreased depression scores on the Beck Depression Scale., whereas subjects receiving the "Daddy and I are One" or the "People are walking" messages did not reduce their scores.


Thornton, P.I., Igleheart, H.C. & Silverman. L.H. (1987). Subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies as an aid in the treatment of drug-abusers. International Journal of the Addictions, 22 (8), pp 751-765.


Thornton, P. I., H. C. Igleheart, et al. (1987). "Subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies as an aid in the treatment of drug abusers." International Journal of the Addictions 22(8): 751 765.

The experimental group in this study received the SPA message while remaining on methadone treatment. Data demonstrated a significant reduction in their drug habits as compared to the control group.


Thuere, J.R. (1985). Computer-assisted spelling: A subliminal methodology to increase cognitive performance and academic self-concept. University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (10-A), p. 3074. ISSN: 0419-4209.


Tiley, A.J. (1979). Sleep learning during stage 2 and REM sleep. MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England, Biological Psychology, 9 (3), pp 155-161. ISSN: 0301-0511.

Andrew Tiley investigated sleep learning during stage 2 and REM sleep.
The subjects were presented with a 20-item picture series at bedtime.

In the latter part of the night, a tape-recorded series of pictures was repeated 10 times during either Stage 2 or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

The results showed that the number of additional words elicited through recognition was significantly greater for REM-repeated words than for stage 2 repeated words.

It is suggested that retrieval limitations, perhaps a result of REM state dependency rather than storage inhibition may be the main focus of the initial recall failure.

By comparison, Stage 2 sleep would seem to present both a lower barrier to memory storage and retrieval compatibility with wakefulness.


Tranel, D. & Damasio, A.R. (1985). Knowledge without awareness. An automatic index of facial recognition by prosopagnosis. University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City. Science, 228, pp 1453-1454.

Daniel Tranel and Antonio Damasio studied two subjects with prosopagnosis, the inability to recognize visually the faces of familiar persons who continue to be normally recognized through other sensory channels.

The two subjects generated frequent and large electrodermal skin conductance responses to faces of persons they had previously known but were not unable to recognize.
They did not generate such responses to unfamiliar faces.

The results suggest that an early step of the physiological process of recognition is still taking place in these patients, without their awareness.

This study provides evidence of subconscious and unconscious processes.

Research in subliminal techniques may produce methods of learning permitting people to circumvent the brain's barriers between awareness and knowledge.


Trank, D.M. (1976). Subliminal stimulation: Hoax or reality? Study prepared at the University of Iowa.

Douglas Trank traces the history of research into subliminal stimulation.
He explains that under certain circumstance and conditions, subliminal communication does occur.

Although subliminal stimuli do affect human responses, the article asserts that there is no sound evidence to prove its effectiveness in changing behavior.
Trank concludes that the effectiveness of subliminal stimuli is determined by the subject's motivational state.


Treder, C.J. & Morgan, D.L. (1987). Subliminal Cessation of Smoking (Report No. 6). Clarion Pennsylvania: Center for Independent Research, 35 pages.

Cheryl Treder and Don Morgan reported reduced consumption of cigarettes following 21 day use of a subliminal tape.
It was concluded that 21 days was insufficient subliminal exposure time for most smokers with long-standing smoking habits to stop smoking completely.


Treimer, M. & Simonson, M.R. (1986). Old wine in new bottles: Subliminal messages in instructional media. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communications Technology. Las Vegas, NV.

Margaret Treimer and Michael Simonson conducted a study to determine if viewing a commercially prepared video tape containing written and aural subliminal messages was more effective at producing weight loss than a video tape containing the same content, but without the subliminals.

After 25 viewings over a 37-day period, the subjects were measured for attitude change, weight change, body fat change, and caloric intake.

The subliminal group did show more improvement in attitudes toward food and exercise but the difference was not statistically significant.

There was no difference between the experimental and control groups in weight change or body fat change.


Treimer, M. & Simpson, M. (1988). Subliminal messages, persuasion and behavior change. Journal of Social Psychology, 128 (4), pp 563-565.


Tricou, C.F. (1987). A study of the effects of auditory subliminal stimulation upon male versus female sixth grade student attitudes toward and achievement in mathematics. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (6-A), p. 1391.


Trieber, Edward J. (1984). The effects of supraliminal stimulation combined with subliminal symbiotic stimuli on academic performance. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (2-B), pp 688-689. ISSN: 0419-4209.


Trimble, R. & Eriksen, C.W. (1966). "Subliminal cues" and the Mu5ller-type illusion. University of Illinois. Perception and Psychophysics, 1 (11), pp 401-404.

Ralph Trimble and Charles Eriksen superimposed feathers-arrows from 1 field upon line pairs from the other field (using the viewing box from a 2-field tachistoscope,) to construct the mu5ller-lyer illusion.

6 os were tested for the illusory effects under 4 conditions of feather-arrow detectability;

1) D' = 0 (no luminance),

2) D' = .42,

3) D' = 1.00, and

4) D' = 3.7.

The length differences of lines of any given pair were 0, 1/64, 2/64 or 6/64.
The illusion effect was observed when the feather-arrow D' equaled 3.7.

No significant nor suggestive illusion effect was observed with the other feather-arrow detectability conditions.


Tryer, P., Horn, S. & Lee, I. (1978). Treatment of agoraphobia by subliminal and supraliminal exposure to phobic cine film. The Lancet, 1 (8060), pp 358-360. ISSN: 0023-7507.

Chronically agoraphobic subjects were divided into three groups.
The supraliminal group saw an agoraphobic film specially made for the study illustrating a range of phobic conditions.
The subliminal group viewed the same film at a level of illumination below the threshold of awareness.
The control group saw a blank screen with no filmed material for the same length of time.
The results showed that both the supraliminal and subliminal groups improved significantly with regard to phobic fears, avoidance and overall assessment.


Tyrer, P., Lewis, P. & Lee, I. (1978). Effects of subliminal and supraliminal stress on symptoms of anxiety. University of Southampton, General Hospital, England. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 166 (2), pp 88-95. ISSN: 0022-3018.

Peter Tyrer, Peter Lewis and Ian Lee performed two experiments to test whether the subliminal viewing of emotive material induced anxiety and its associated bodily symptoms.
In experiment one, the subjects looked at anxiety-inducing words presented singly through a tachistoscope under supraliminal or subliminal conditions.

In experiment two, the subjects looked at a neutral and an emotive movie film under similar conditions.

The ratings from the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were significantly increased under the subliminal emotive conditions.
The correlations between psychic and somatic symptoms of anxiety were significantly higher under supraliminal conditions as compared with the subliminal conditions.


The Controversy in the Differences of Audio Subliminal Technology

Subliminal Messages, Subliminal Audio, Subliminal Advertising and How it Works

The Power of the Subconscious Mind and Positive Thoughts or Self Talk

The InnerTalk Subliminal Technology

Report: The Truth About Subliminal Programs
(PDF Download)

Peripheral Learning Reference Guide

The Subliminal Challenge

Grants for Research