Progressive Awareness Research

Improving Lives One Person at a Time since 1984.

Subliminal Literature: Bibliography and Review


Peripheral Desk Reference K

Kaley, H.W. (1970). The effects of subliminal stimuli and drive on verbal responses and dreams. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31 (4-B), p. 2284.


Kamiya, S., H. Tajika, et al. (1994). "Effects of subliminal perception of words in explicit and implicit memory." Psychologia: an International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 37(2): 72-80.


Kanthamani, H. and J. Palmer (1993). "A ganzfeld experiment with "subliminal sending."." Journal of Parapsychology 57(3): 241-257.

This study examined the effectiveness of "subliminal sending" on the ganzfield reception among pairs of subjects.


Kao, Y.-f. (1991). Subliminal processing: The spread of activation in color priming, U Nevada, Reno, US.


Kaplan, R.B. (1976). The symbiotic fantasy as a therapeutic agent: An experimental comparison of the effects of three symbiotic elements on manifest pathology in schizophrenics. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (3-B), pp 1437-1438.


Kaplan, R., Thornton, P. & Silverman, L. (1985). Further data on the effects of subliminal symbiotic stimulation on schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 173 (11), pp 658-666. ISSN: 0022-3018.

Rosalind Kaplan, Patricia Thornton and Lloyd Silverman examined the effects of activating unconscious symbiotic fantasies in schizophrenic males.

The subjects were divided into four groups and assessed for pathological thinking, pathological non-verbal behavior and self-esteem before and after exposure to experimental and control subliminal stimuli.

The control stimulus for all groups was the message "People are walking".
Each group was divided into two, with one half of each group being exposed to verbal subliminal stimuli only and the other half to verbal plus congruent picture subliminal stimuli.
The experimental messages were;

a) "Mommy and I are one",

b) "Mommy is always with me",

c) "Mommy feeds me well", and

d) "I cannot hurt Mommy".

The "Mommy and I are one" message was the only one to produce adaptive behavior, and did so on all three dependent variables.

The results support the supposition that it is specifically symbiosis-related gratifications that are ameliorative for schizophrenics.


Kaser, V.A. (1986). The effects of an auditory subliminal message upon the production of images and dreams. Atascadero State Hospital, Central Program Services, CA. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 174 (7), pp 397-407. ISSN: 0022-3018.

Vaughn Kaser conducted this study in order to investigate the effect that an auditory subliminal message, produced by speeding up the rate at which it was recorded, would have on the imagery and dreams of a group of normal subjects.

The auditory subliminal message was produced by speeding up a message that was sung until it could not be consciously understood.

This message was mixed with a normal music recording and played to the subjects in the experimental group.

The control group heard the normal music recording without the subliminal message.
Both groups were asked to produce a pretest drawing before the tapes were played, an imagery drawing immediately after the tapes were played, and a dream drawing of any dreams they might have that night.

A statistical analysis of blind ratings given to all the drawings by 2 art therapists indicated a significant difference between the dream drawings and the imagery drawings of the experimental and the control group.

When the drawings were examined, the effect of the subliminal message could be seen.
The results show that the auditory subliminal message did have an effect upon the imagery and dreams of the subjects in the experimental group.

The findings suggest that the unconscious/preconscious mind is able to perceive a recorded verbal message that cannot be consciously understood at the high rate of speed at which it was recorded.


Katz, R.J. (1973). Subliminal perception and the creative preconscious. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (4-B), p. 1751.

Robert Katz investigated the relationship between subliminal perception and the creativity of highly creative and emotionally constricted subjects.

The subjects were divided into highly creative and emotionally constricted groups on the basis of card VI, VIII and IX of the Rorschach test.

A subliminal slide of a "pink tree" was presented to the experimental groups, while the control group were exposed to a blank slide.

All three groups were then asked to create a story and to describe the physical environment in which their stories took place.

The responses were scored for the presence of literal reproductions of the subliminal stimulus and for responses conceptually related to the stimulus.

Two hypotheses were put forward;

1) the creative group would produce a significantly greater number of both literal reproductions of the subliminal stimulus and responses conceptually related to the stimulus, and

2) the increase in the degree of reality relatedness demanded by the structured condition would facilitate the production of literal reproductions in the creative group by reducing the degree to which the drive organization was involved in the formation of their creation.

The results clearly demonstrated that the creative group was superior to the constricted group in the ability to make use of preconscious material by incorporating either conceptually related responses or literal reproductions of the experimental stimulus into their subsequent productions.

The structured condition failed to facilitate the production of literal reproductions.


Kaye, M.M. (1975). The therapeutic value of three merging stimuli for male schizophrenics. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (3-B), pp 1438-1439.

Melvin Kaye examined the therapeutic value of the subliminal presentation of verbal messages, which were designed to arouse fantasies of merging oneself with another, on hospitalized schizophrenics.


Keithler, M.A. (1981). The influence of the transcendental meditation program and personality variables on auditory thresholds and cardio-respiratory responding. Doctoral Dissertation, Washington University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (04-B), p. 1662.

Mary Anne Keithler conducted this study in order to determine the influence of the transcendental meditation program and personality variables on auditory thresholds and cardio respiratory responding.

Many studies have shown that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program improves perceptual ability, supposedly because regular practice of the TM technique improves the ability to concentrate and expands the level of conscious awareness.

Clements and Millstein (1977) found enhanced auditory thresholds (using a von Bekesy audiometer) in a small sample of female sidhas (practitioners of the TM Sidhi program) who had reported especially good experiences with the Sidhi technique for enhancing hearing ability.

The present study was designed to determine if a larger sample of Sidhas (ones not specially selected on the basis of their experiences) and a group of non-Sidha TM practitioners would show lower auditory thresholds than a group of non-TM practitioners.
The influence of response bias, personality, and central versus peripheral effects on auditory thresholds were addressed.

To assess motivational influences, cardiac and respiratory activity were measured and the effect of information processing requirements on physiological activity examined.
The subjects were divided into three groups (Sidhas, TM only and control).

Three auditory threshold tests were given, two to determine peripheral hearing ability, the method of limits (a bias-confounded measure), a forced choice absolute threshold test (a bias-free measure) to determine central discriminative ability.

For all tests, a one second 500 Hz tone was delivered binaurally through earphones.
Cardiac respiratory activity was measured during the tests and afterwards subjects were asked to fill out a personality questionnaire (the EPQ) and a rating scale concerning reactions to the session.

There was no significant differences found between groups for the two forced choice threshold tests.

The method of limits, however, showed that the Sidhas had significantly lower thresholds than the control subjects, implying a liberal response bias for the TM subjects and a conservative one for the control subjects. This may be related to greater familiarity with preconscious levels of the mind (where subliminal perception may take place) for the TM subjects.

This result suggests that the issue of response bias needs to be considered with specially selected Sidhas before Clements and Millstein's finding can be accepted.
Little relationship was found between personality variables and threshold measures, or between personality and TM.

The point of maximal cardia deceleration associated with the period of auditory stimulation within a trial was found to be logically related to the information processing demands of the tasks. This confirms the theory that cardiac acceleration (after a period of deceleration associated with the intake of sensory information) is associated with decision making and task completion.

Cardiac deceleration associated with auditory stimulation was not found to be greater at lower intensities, although respiratory reduction was.


Kelly, J.S. (1979). Subliminal embeds in print advertising: A challenge to advertising ethics. Journal of Advertising, 8 (3), pp 20-24. ISSN: 0091-3367.

J. Steven Kelly discusses the use of subliminal embeds in advertising.
In spite of an increase in public awareness, due to various news media and consumer publications, the two books by Wilson Bryan Key and Vance Packard's Hidden Persuaders, a rebuttal from the advertising community regarding this activity has been nonexistent.

The implication behind the use of subliminal embeds in advertising is that such methods invade the consumers' subconscious and intrude on their purchase decision.
In a study of college students, it was found that subliminal embeds in advertisements did not produce significantly more recall of brands or illustrations than did regular ads.


Kemp-Wheeler, S.M. & Hill, A.B. (1987). Anxiety response to subliminal experience of mild stress. British Journal of Psychology, 78 (pt 3), pp 365-374.

Mild stress was induced by subliminal stimuli.


Kemp-Wheeler, S. M. (1988). The effects of subliminal stimulation: Semantic priming and the arousal of anxiety, U Keele, England.


Kemp-Wheeler, S. M. and A. B. Hill (1988). "Semantic priming without awareness: Some methodological considerations and replications." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A(Human Experimental Psychology. Vol 40): 671-692.

Semantic priming effects were obtained this study which presented verbal stimuli at below the objective detection threshold.


Kemp-Wheeler, S. M. and A. B. Hill (1992). "Semantic and emotional priming below objective detection threshold." Cognition & Emotion 6(2): 113-128.

Significant semantic priming effects were found consistently while emotional priming effects were not obtained unless the target stimuli was preceded by an emotionally aversive prime.


Kennedy, R.S. (1971). A comparison of performance on visual and auditory monitoring tasks. Human Factors, 13 (2), pp 93-97. ISSN: 0018-7208.


Key, W.B. (1973). Subliminal Seduction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Wilson Bryan Key describes how advertisers use visual subliminals to sell product.


Key, W.B. (1976). Media Sexploitation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Wilson Bryan Key discusses further ways in which the media users the consumers fantasies, fears and intimate habits in order to manipulate buying behavior.

Key, W.B.
(1980). Clam Plate Orgy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wilson Bryan Key shows how advertisers use sex as the ultimate subliminal weapon to persuade the consumer to buy their products.


Kihlstrom, J.F. (1987). The cognitive unconscious. University of Arizona. Science, 237, pp 1445-1452.

John Kihlstrom discusses the unconscious, preconscious and subconscious.
Cognitive research in psychology reveals the impact of nonconscious mental structures and processes on the individual's conscious experience, thought and action.

Research on perceptual-cognitive and motoric skills indicates that they are automized through experience, and thus rendered unconscious.

In addition, research on subliminal perception, implicit memory and hypnosis indicates that events can affect mental functions even though they cannot be consciously perceived or remembered.

These findings suggest a tripartite division of the cognitive unconscious into truly unconscious mental processes operating on knowledge structures that may themselves be preconscious or subconscious.


Kihlstrom, J. F., T. M. Barnhardt, et al. (1992). Implicit perception. Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford Press, New York, NY, US: 17-54.

(from the chapter) the quest for subliminal perception has no meaning unless the limen is defined in terms of what Cheesman and Merikle (1985) have called the subjective threshold: "the detection level where subjects claim not to be able to discriminate perceptual information at better than chance level" / reliance on the objective threshold, "the level of detectability where perceptual information is actually discriminated at chance level" ...effectively rules the phenomenon of subliminal perception out of existence / we (the authors) advocate abandoning the notion of "subliminal" perception entirely, and with it all of the unfortunate psychophysical implications of the concept of the limen / in its place we proffer the concept of implicit perception, based on an analogy with the phenomenon of implicit memory.


Kilbourne, W.E., Painton, S. & Ridley, D. (1985). The effect of sexual embedding on responses to magazine advertisements. Sam Houston State University. Journal of Advertising, 14 (2), pp 48-55. ISSN: 0091-3367.

William Kilbourne, Scott Painton and Danny Ridley conducted two empirical studies to assess the effectiveness of sexual embedding in advertising.

In Study 1 the subjects viewed and evaluated 2 advertisements (ads) with embeds or 2 matched ads without embeds.

The results indicated that embedding was effective in raising attitudinal evaluations of a liquor ad but not a cigarette ad.

In Study 2, galvanic skin response (GSR) measurements were taken on the subjects while they viewed both versions (with and without embeds) of 2 ads.

The results indicated that embedding was effective in increasing GSR measurements for the versions of the ads with embeds.

The results of both studies suggest that the view of sexual embeds in magazine advertisements influences viewers' evaluation of the ads.


Kim, J.-o., K. Rhee, et al. (1984). "Semantic information processing of Korean words." Korean Journal of Psychology 4(3): 185-200.

The authors of this study conclude that preconscious perception is independent of associative strengths between probe and prime words and therefore suggest support for Freud's hypothesis that multiple activations of associative pathways occur with related unidentified stimuli.


Kimura, D. (1961). Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli.

Canadian Journal of Psychology, 15.


Kirkwood, B.J.
(1987). Subliminal control of behavior: myth or miracle? Department of Psychology, University of Auckland. New Zealand Medical Journal, 100 (817), pp 69-70. ISSN: 0028-8446.


Klaine, J. (1980, July). Subliminal world. Peterson's Photographic Magazine, 9 (8), p. 45.


Klatz, R.M.
(1986, July 18). Behavioral studies show subliminal tapes aid smokers, athletes.

Lake Forest News.


Klatz, R.M. (1987, Spring). Subliminal and psychological training for maximum human performance. National Health and Medical Trends, pp 14-18.


Kleespies, P. & Wiener, M. (1972). The "orienting reflex" as an input indicator in "subliminal" perception. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 35 (1), pp 103-110.


Klein G.S. & Holt, R.R.
(1960). Problems and issues in current studies of subliminal activation. In Festschrift for Gardner Murphy. Eds. J.G. Peatman and E.L. Hartley. New York: Harper and Rowe.


Klein G.S., Spence, D.P. & Gourevitch, S. (1958). Cognition without awareness: Subliminal influences upon conscious thought. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 54, pp 167-176.


Klein, S. & Moricz, E. (1969). A study of the effect of threshold stimuli. Magyar Pszichologiai Szemle, 26 (2), pp 198-206.

Sandor Klein and Eva Moricz found that a subliminal stimulus inserted into a 16-mm filmstrip was more frequently perceived by males than by females.


Kleinbrook, W.L. (1985). Pastoral considerations regarding the use of subliminal psychodynamic activation. Drew University Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (8-A), p. 2555. ISSN: 0419-4209.


Klinger, M. R. and A. G. Greenwald (1994). Preferences need no inferences?: The cognitive basis of unconscious mere exposure effects. The heart's eye: Emotional influences in perception and attention. S. K. Paula M. Niedenthal, Academic Press, Inc, San Diego, CA, US: 67-85.

(from the chapter) (in 1980, R. B. Zajonc postulated) that persons can have an emotional reaction to a stimulus without any corresponding cognitive reaction / Zajonc suggested that emotional responses may be produced by a system that is completely independent from cognitive processes / principal empirical support for Zajonc's thesis came from results of several experiments on the subliminal mere exposure effect / he interpreted the effect as evidence that affective responses can be elicited by stimuli that have been repeatedly encountered, but that are not consciously detectable /// review research on the mere exposure effect and subliminal mere exposure effect / consider the attempts to account for these findings in theory / present a program of research that has strong implications for an explanation of this effect / in so doing we point to limitations of past theories of mere exposure and extend them to account for our recent findings /// testing the memory-based models of subliminal mere exposure / tests of the memory attribution model.


Klinger, M. R. and A. G. Greenwald (1995). "Unconscious priming of association judgments." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 21(3): 569-581.

Evidience is presented that suggests that spreading activation is the important mechanism responsible for unconscious priming. Researchers obtained a statistically significant increase in the priming effect for subjects who could not detect the prime than for subjects who could partially detect the prime.


Koizumi, K., Ishikawa, T. & Brooks, C.M.
(1973). The existence of facilitatory axon collaterals in neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus. Brain Research, 63, pp 408-413. ISSN: 0006-8993.


Kooyman, R. K.
(1989). An investigation of the effect of music upon the academic, affective, and attendance profiles of selected fourth grade students, U Nevada, Las Vegas, US.

Kolers, P.A. (1972). Subliminal stimulation in simple and complex cognitive processes. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 33 (3-B), p. 1269.


Kostandov, E.A. (1967). The effect of changes in the functional state of the cortex and activating systems of the brain stem on detection of weak auditory signals. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat, 17 (4), pp 634-642. ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.


Kostandov, E.A. (1968). The effect of unrecognized emotional verbal stimuli. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 18 (3), pp 371-380. ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.

Kostandov, E.A. (1969). The effect of emotional excitation on auditory threshold and subliminal reactions. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 19 (3), pp 462-70. ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.


Kostandov, E.A.
(1970). Perception and subliminal reactions to unrecognized stimuli. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 20 (2), pp 441-449. ISSN: DYAS-0000. Language: RUSSIAN.


Kostandov, E.A. (1971). Evoked potentials of the human cerebral cortex to recognized and unrecognized auditory signals. Neirofiziologiia, 3 (2), pp 115-22. Language: RUSSIAN.


Kostandov, E.A. (1973). The effect of negative emotions on perception. Central Scientific Research Inst. of Legal Psychiatry, Moscow, USSR. Voprosy Psikhologii, 19 (6), pp 60-72. Language: RUSSIAN.

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emotional content of words on their recognition thresholds.

The subjects were all mentally disturbed because of severe conflicts experienced in the life situation.

Neutral and emotional words were presented to subjects while their EEG and GSR were recorded.

The emotional words used were pertinent to subject's particular conflict.
The experiment was run under 3 conditions: before, during and after the injection of anticholingeric agent.

The results, as recorded by the GSR and EEG, showed that there was a higher verbal recognition thresholds for the emotional words, along with subliminal recognition.

The emotional words produced an increase in amplitude and a decrease in the latency in the late positive component of CEP from the occipital region of the brain.It is conjectured that this was caused by nonspecific afferent signals from the limbic system.

The possible mechanism whereby the limbic system may change recognition thresholds of emotional words is discussed.


Kostandov, E.A. (1977). Cortical evoked potentials to emotional words (supraliminal and subliminal). Serbsky Central Research Inst. of Forensic Psychiatry, Moscow, USSR. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 19 (4), pp 301-302. ISSN: 0001-7604.


Kostandov, E.A. (1985). Currents significance of the work of G.C. Gershuni on subsensory reactions. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat., 36 (6), pp 1014-1021. ISSN: 0044-4677.


Kostandov, E.A. & Arzumanov, YuL.
(1978). Conditioned reflex mechanism of unconscious decision making. Zh. Vyssh. Nerv. Deiat, 28 (3), pp 542-548.


Kostandov, E.A. & Arzumanov, Y. L. (1986). The influence of subliminal emotional words on functional hemispheric asymmetry. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 4 (2), pp 143 147.

The aim of this study was to examine the interhemispheric differences in the process of perception of subliminal verbal stimuli, by recording the P300 component of the evoked potential over both hemispheres.

Neutral and emotional words were presented subliminally, at random, to the left or right visual fields.

The results showed that, in response to an unrecognized emotional word, the amplitude of P300 wave increased diffusely over both hemispheres as compared to that of the neutral word, with no change in interhemispheric differences.

The interhemispheric difference did change considerably in the presence of an "unaccountable" emotion caused by a subliminal word. This suggests a unilateral activation of the right hemisphere and a predominant role of this hemisphere in the cortical organization of the unconscious function "unaccountable" emotion.


Kostandov, E. A. and Y. L. Arzumanov (1988). "Physiological mechanisms of "unaccountable" negative emotions. 2nd European International Association for Interdisciplinary Study of Higher Nervous Functions Conference (1987, Magdeburg, German Democratic Republic)." Activitas Nervosa Superior 30(3): 186-187.


Kostandov, E., Arzumanov, J., Vazhnova, T., Reshchikova, T. & Shostakovich, G. (1980). Conditional mechanisms of decision making. Pavlovs Journal of Biological Science, 15 (4), pp 142-150.


Kostandov, E.A. & D'iachkoya, G.I. (1971). Evoked potentials of the human cerebral cortex to recognized and unrecognized auditory signals. Neirofiziologiia (USSR), 3 (2), pp 115-122. ISSN: 0028-2561.


Kothera, L. M.
(1990). A reinvestigation of the subliminal psychodynamic activation dart throwing paradigm: The role of information processing, Long Island U, Brooklyn Ctr, NY, US.


Kothera, L., R. Fudin, et al. (1990). "Effects of subliminal psychodynamic activation on dart throwing performance: Another nonreplication." Perceptual & Motor Skills 71(3, Pt 1): 1015 1022.

Subliminal psychodynamic activation messages failed to improve dart throwing ability in this study.


Kotze, H. F. and A. T. Moller
(1990). "Effect of auditory subliminal stimulation on GSR." Psychological Reports 67(3, Pt 1): 931-934.

This study showed that auditory subliminal stimuli could effect a significant increase in GSR. 38 undergraduates were exposed subliminally to emotional words while their galvanic skin response (GSR) was monitored. Emotional words such as abortion, syphilis and murder were used.


Kotze, H. F. and A. T. Moller (1991). "Subliminal stimulation, choice behavior and some personality correlates of subliminal sensitivity." Perceptual & Motor Skills 72(1): 315-322.

This study investigated aspects of choice behavior. Results failed to show a positive correlation between symbol choice and neutral message. The researchers suggest that the symbol choice may have itself been neutral since it was not need or motivation oriented.


Koufopoulos, R.M. (1987). A study of introjective depression using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (3-B), p. 880.


Koulack, D. & Goodenough, D.R. (1976). Dream recall and dream recall failure. An arousal retrieval model. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Psychological Bulletin, 83 (5), pp 975-984.


Koulack, D. & Goodenough, D.R.
(1977). A model for dream-recall on wakening: A proposal to account for memory faults in the recall of dreams. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Annales Medica-Psychologiques, 1 (1), pp 35-42. ISSN: 00034487. Language: FRENCH.

In this article David Koulack and Donald Goodenough propose an arousal/retrieval model to account for difficulties in sleep learning and dream recall.

The model is based on two-stage memory theory, which assumes that information processing in a short-term memory state facilities subsequent retrieval from long-term memory storage.

The authors propose that the effectiveness of processing of target materials is impaired during sleep.

Dreams and information contained in stimulus presentations to a sleeping person very likely can only be retrieved if an awakening occurs during the life of the short term memory trance.
The authors further propose that experiences occurring during or shortly after awakening compete with the target material for space in the limited-capacity processing system, with the most salient of the set favored in the competition.

Interference and repression effects are assumed as additional factors in retrieval from long term storage.


Kramer, J. (1986). Psychic Guide. In Subliminal Persuasion, Becoming All You Can Be, pp. 33-36.


Kreitler, H. & Kreitler, S. (1973). Subliminal Perception and extrasensory perception. Tel Aviv University, Israel. Journal of Parapsychology, 37 (3), pp 163-188.

Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler conducted this study in order to investigate;

a) which conditions facilitate ESP, eg.

i) absence of other stimuli,

ii) presence of weak stimuli conveying the same information as ESP, or

iii) the presence of weak stimuli contradicting ESP, and

b) the effectiveness of ESP when the sender is merely thinking about the target he is trying to "send" or is actively trying to transmit it.

The results indicated that ESP messages are most effective when they contradicted information conveyed by subliminal stimuli and were communicated by a transmitting sender.


Kreitler, H. & Kreitler, S. (1974). Optimization of experimental ESP results. Harvard University, Carpenter Center. Journal of Parapsychology, 38 (4), pp 383-392.

In this article, Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler stated that the comparative analysis of 4 ESP experiments showed that ESP enhanced neither supraliminal or subliminal inputs, nor did it strengthen a subject's dominant response tendencies.

ESP effects were most manifest when the contents of the ESP message differed from that of concomitant external and internal stimuli.

From the results, it was concluded that the external and internal stimuli constitute the noise background against which the ESP signal has to be detected.

The authors suggest that, in order to strengthen the detectability of ESP signals and thus increase the possibility of successful ESP experimentation, there should also be experimental control of response bias and guessing habits, in addition to the already traditional reduction of external stimulation in ESP experiments.

In particular messages should be selected which differ considerably in their contents from the contents of whatever external and internal stimuli may be occurring at the same time.


Krishna, S.R. (1985). A review of the PA India conference. Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. Journal of Parapsychology, 49 (3), pp 249-255. ISSN: 0022-3387.

In this article, Shanti Krishna discusses research in parapsychology, including Western and Eastern psi perspectives.
Included in the discussion is ESP and subliminal perception.


Krosnick, J. A., A. L. Betz, et al. (1992). "Subliminal conditioning of attitudes." Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 18(2): 152-162.

Two studies involving 162 undergraduate students demonstrated subliminal conditioning of attitudes without awareness of antecedents. Subliminal photographs affected attitudes and beliefs about personality characteristics of the target person.


Kruse, P. Some suggestions about suggestion and hypnosis: a radical constructivist view. In Suggestion and Suggestibility, Theory and Research by Gheorghiu, V.A., Netter, P., Eysenck, H.J. & Rosenthal (Eds). Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Peter Kruse makes the case of the under-researched and often ignored power of suggestive influences in all forms of communication and every day experience.
Kruse applies the reality criteria and offers epistomological consideration for the value of suggestion in research, theory and therapy.


Kruse, P. & Stadler, M. (1990). Stability and instability in cognitive systems: multistability, suggestion, and psychomotor interaction. Department of Psychology, University of Bremen. Springer Series in Synergetics, 45, pp 201-215.

The focus of this paper is on approaching brain/mind in the interaction between stability/instability associating mental events with neural events.
The authors summarize presented facts and ideas applying a self-organization theory to cognitive phenomena in two main areas;

1) cognitive instability, and

2) instability in cognitive systems.


Kruse, P., Stadler, M., & Kobs, M. Suggestion and perceptual instability: auditory subliminal influences, a pilot study (1991). Department of Psychology, University of Bremen.

In this study the researchers demonstrated the influence of a subliminal stimuli delivered via an audio subliminal tape prepared using what Kruse dubbed the "Taylor Method" on the instability on perception. This method employs the simultaneous delivery of forward and reverse spoken affirmations. The forward messages are permissive, such as, "It's okay to be good," and the reverse message, supposedly directed at the right hemisphere, "I am good."


Kunzendorf, R.G., Lacourse, P. & Lynch, B.
(1986-1987). Hypnotic hypermnesia for subliminally encoded stimuli: state dependent memory for "unmonitored" sensations. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 6 (4), pp 365-377.

This study examined the encoding of subliminal and hypnotic perceptions. Two experiments involving 145 undergraduates demonstrated that subliminal information processing was enhanced by the hypnotic state.

Kunzendorf, R. G. and L. Montisanti (1989). "Subliminal activation of hypnotic responses: Subconscious realms of mind versus subconscious modes of mentation." Imagination, Cognition & Personality 9(2): 103-114.

This study found that deeply hypnotized subjects were able to recognize subliminal stimuli.


Kunzendorf, R. G., M. Jesses, et al. (1990). "Subliminal activation of intrapsychic conflicts: Subconscious realms of mind vs subconscious processes of mentation." Imagination, Cognition & Personality 10(2): 117-128.

80 male university students heard the message, "It's wrong to crush daddy," both stereophonically and binaurally. The stereophonic listening procedure interrupted mathematical problem solving while the binaural procedure did not.


Kunzendorf, R. G. and W. Butler (1992). "Apperception revisited: "Subliminal" monocular perception during the apperception of fused random-dot stereograms." Consciousness & Cognition: an International Journal 1(1): 63-76.

This study confirmed Kunzendorf's redefinition of binocular apperception and source monitoring theory.


Kwawer, J.S. (1972). An experimental study of psychoanalytic theories of overt male homosexuality. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32 (10-B), p. 6053.

Jay Solomon Kwawer designed this study in order to provide an experimental evaluation of two aspects of the psychoanalytic theory of overt male homosexuality;

a) that homosexual symptoms are related to oedipal fantasies, and

b) homosexuality is related to a wish for a symbiotic attachment to mother.

The subjects were shown a tachistopic presentation of verbal and pictorial stimuli at a subliminal level.

The three conditions used were;

i) a subliminal stimulus designed to trigger incestuous fantasies about mother,

ii) a subliminal stimulus designed to trigger a fantasy of symbiotic attachment to mother.

iii) a neutral control stimulus.

The dependent variables were designed to assess changes in homosexual manifestations as a function of subliminal presentation of the experimental stimuli.

A difference which could be significant was found for the incest condition on a measure directly tapping the degree of homosexual attraction to other men.

At the level of intensity and exposure used, the subjects were unable to discriminate between stimuli on a better than chance basis.


Kwawer, J.S. (1977). Male homosexual psychodynamics and the Rorschach test. Journal for Personal Assessment, 41 (1), pp 10-18. ISSN: 0022-3891.

Jay Soloman Kwawer discusses the contradictory findings regarding Wheeler's Rorschach content signs of male homosexuality.

It is suggested that the negative findings may have resulted from a focus on homosexual populations characterized by minimal arousal of underlying unconscious conflicts.
A hypothesis was put forward, which stated that activating these unconscious psychodynamics would enhance the discriminative power of the Wheeler signs.

An earlier study was reviewed where Inkblot protocols obtained from matched groups of homosexuals and heterosexuals under two experimental conditions involving subliminal exposure of either;

1) an incest-related, or

2) a neutral control stimulus were scored for Wheeler signs.

It was found that the incest condition brought about a significantly greater incidence of the signs in homosexual records only. This suggests that the intensification of unconscious incest wishes stimulates homosexual reactions, consonant with psychoanalytic formulation.


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The Power of the Subconscious Mind and Positive Thoughts or Self Talk

The InnerTalk Subliminal Technology

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Peripheral Learning Reference Guide

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Grants for Research