Progressive Awareness Research

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Subliminal Literature: Bibliography and Review


Peripheral Desk Reference Q and R

Q: None


Radford, G. P. (1992). Communication and the constitution of scientific knowledge: A Foucauldian examination of the discursive production of subliminal perception in psychology, Rutgers U, New Brunswick, NJ, US.


Rao, P.K. & Rao, K.R. (1982). Two studies of ESP and subliminal perception. Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. Journal of Parapsychology, 46 (3), pp 185-207. ISSN: 0022 3387.

Two studies were conducted in order to examine the relationship between subliminal perception (SP) scores and ESP scores.

Study 1 was designed to control for the differential effect in the event that the SP and ESP scores correlated negatively.

The results were at chance.

In study 2, the SP and ESP scores of 2 groups of subjects were compared.
The subjects in the experimental group practiced transcendental meditation (TM) prior to testing.

The results of the experimental group only gave a significant positive correlation between SP and ESP scores.

The psi-hitters and psi-missers in the experimental group differed significantly in their SP scores; high- and low-SP scores differed significantly in their ESP scores.

A comparison of the SP and ESP scores of experimental and control groups gave evidence that the experimental group did better than the control group on the SP task only.

Subjects in the experimental group, who obtained more SP hits than the group mean, obtained significantly more ESP hits than the high-SP Subjects in the control groups.

The results indicate that the relation between SP and ESP may depend on the strength or graduation of the subliminal signals and the state of the individual.


Rao, P. V. and U. Vindhya Sudhakar (1987). "The differential effect as a psi-sensory relationship." Journal of the Society for Psychical Research 54(808): 181-185.

The authors assert a correlation between the operation of psi effects (extra sensory perception) and forced decision processes in subliminal stimulation tests.


Reaves, L. (1984). Subliminal seduction. American Bar Association Journal, 70.


Rees, W.J. (1971). On the terms "subliminal perception" and "subception". Leeds University, England. British Journal of Psychology, 62 (4), pp 501-504. ISSN: 0007-1269.

Rees argues that it is necessary to distinguish between a developmental and an analytic use of the terms subliminal perception and subception,
It is important to recognize that in the prevailing analytical use, subliminal perception does not designate a form of perception but a form of epiperception.
In light of these considerations, Rees believes that it is possible to disperse some of the confusions attending these terms.


Reid, L.N., Lane, W.R., Wenthe, L.S. & Smith, O.W. (1985). Creative strategies in highly creative domestic and international television advertising. International Journal of Advertising (UK), 1 (1), pp 11-18. ISSN: 0261-9903.

Leonard Reid, Ronald Lane, Lela Wenthe and Otto Smith conducted a study to assess whether the creative strategies used by domestic television commercials differ from those used by international TV commercials.

Amongst the results obtained, it was found that international commercials used command strategies and subliminal oriented strategies more frequently than did domestic commercials.


Reingold, E. M. and P. M. Merikle (1988). "Using direct and indirect measures to study perception without awareness." Perception & Psychophysics 44(6): 563-575.

An approach to measuring perception without awareness is proposed.


Richardson, M.V. (1981). The effects of subliminal implantation in written material on the decision-making process. University of Arkansas. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (6 A), p. 2592. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Maurine Richardson performed this study in order to investigate the effect of subliminal implantation on the decision-making process.
Specific areas covered were;

1) the effect of the implant on the decision of a subject's choice of reading passages,

2) the effect of the positive implanted stimulus on the choice in a positive direction,

3) the effect of the negative implanted stimulus on the choice in a negative direction, and

4) the effect of age, sex, college, academic discipline, academic classification, and/or national origin on the responses to the questionnaire.

The subjects were chosen from students of a predominantly reading-orientated course.
The implants were, "select" and "do not select".

The reading activity included reading subliminally implanted passages.

Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that;

a) females were more influenced by the "select" implant than the males,

b) caucasian females were most influenced by the "select" implant,

c) freshman females were the easiest to influence,

d) the significant differences between American Indian males and the Caucasian Black group may have indicated a cultural difference, and

e) physical maturity was a deterrent to the influence of the subliminal implantation.


Robertson, S.R. (1983). The effect of subliminal merging stimuli on field dependence. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (11-B), p. 3741. ISSN: 0419-4209.


Robles, R., Smith, R., Carver, C.S. & Wellens, A.R. (1987). Influence of subliminal visual images on the experience of anxiety. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13 (3), pp 399-410.

130 undergraduates participated in this study. Threatening, humorous and neutral images were embedded in videotapes. Subjects exposed to threatening messages scored higher than those exposed to neutral or humorous messages on state anxiety scales but there was no measurable effect on trait scales.


Rogers, M. and K. H. Smith (1993). "Public perceptions of subliminal advertising: Why practitioners shouldn't ignore this issue." Journal of Advertising Research 33(2): 10-18.

Evaluated the extent to which consumers were aware of subliminal advertising and the levels to whicdh they believed it would work .


Roher, D.M. (1977). A rationality standard for the first amendment. Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Communication Association (New York City, March 24-26, 1977).

This discussion summarizes the general principles that may be applied in determining the limits of free expression and proposes new criteria based on libertarian values.

It is asserted that all advocacy warrants unqualified protection, unless it is presented in such a context that the listener does not have an opportunity to decide rationally whether or not to heed the speaker's appeal.

Conditions to which this standard might be applied include mind control and subliminal advertising.


Roll, W. G. (1988). Psi and the phenomenology of memory. Research in parapsychology 1987: Abstracts and papers from the Thirtieth Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, 1987. R. L. M. Debra H. Weiner, Scarecrow Press, Inc, Metuchen, NJ, US: 131-134.

(from the chapter) examination of memory that sets aside the preconception that memory is only a reflection of things past # memory may also underlie PK (psychokinesis) /// dissociation and arousal # ESP and subliminal perception # implications for methodology # experimenter effect # present model ...suggests that memories of previous users which are enfolded in the laboratory and equipment may affect results.


Roney-Dougal, S. (1981). The interface between psi and subliminal perception. University of Surrey, Guildford, England. Parapsychology Review, 12 (4), pp 12-18. ISSN: 0031-1804.

Serena Roney-Dougal discusses recent research on the comparison of the perceptive, cognitive, and affective and personality effects of psi vs. subliminal stimuli.
At the cognitive level, there is no difference in either the amount or form of awareness of the 2 phenomena.

Psi, subliminal stimuli and supraliminal stimuli are considered to form a continuum.
Personality correlates are identical, and research suggests that there may be an effective response without a cognitive one.

It is concluded that theoretical and experimental comparisons of psi with subliminal perception reveal considerable similarities in the way both forms of extremely low-level information perception are revealed in the consciousness and behavioral components of individuals.


Roney-Dougal, S.M. (1986). Subliminal and psi perception: a review of the literature. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 53 (805), pp 405-434.

Compares psi processing with subliminal perception.

Roney- Dougal, S.M. (1987). A comparison of psi and subliminal perception: exploratory and follow-up studies. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 81 (2), pp 141 181.


Rose, C. (1985). Accelerated Learning. Topaz Publishing Ltd., Buckinghamshire, England.

Colin Rose examines ways to increase the brain's ability to learn.
Material is presented in such a way that it is absorbed readily by both the left and right brain and by both the subconscious and conscious mind.

The mind learns more, with less conscious effort when it is more relaxed and therefore more receptive.


Roseman, J. (1985). The role of subliminal messages and sensation-seeking in eating restraint of the obese and non obese. St. John's University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (2-B), p. 659. ISSN: 0419-4209.


Rosen, D. L. and S. N. Singh (1992). "An investigation of subliminal embed effect on multiple measures of advertising effectiveness." Psychology & Marketing 9(2): 157-173.

The effect of subliminal embed in advertising were compared with the findings of T. E. Barry, 1987. No effect in change in attitude, behavior intention or product recall was found, challenging the findings of Barry.


Ross, D.L. (1978). The effects of subliminal oedipal stimulation on competitive performance in college men. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (6-B), p. 3005.


Roth, N., Roscher, G. & Heine, A. (1988). Memory recall after "subliminal" stimuli: a psychophysiological analysis. Acta-Nerv-Super (Praha), 30 (2), pp 130-132.


Roth, N. and J. Boddy (1989). "Event-related potentials and the recognition of subliminally exposed words after repeated presentation." Journal of Psychophysiology 3(3): 281-289.

Analysis of event-related potential (ERP) data suggest that cumulative effects of repeated subliminal stimulation may be measured by ERP as the effects culminate in conscious word recognition.


Roufs, J.A. & Pellegrino van Stuyvenberg, J.A. (1976). Gain curve of the eye to subliminal sinusoidal modulation. Institute for Perception Research, Eindhovan, Netherlands. IPO Annual Progress Report, 11, pp 56-63.

Measured the gain vs. frequency of subliminal sinusoidal modulations by using a single shot probe consisting of three flashes.

A bandpass-type of transfer consistent with earlier findings was found with respect to the perceptual attribute-revealing transients.


Rudolph, J.R. (1970). Selective subliminal perception relative to approach/avoidance tendencies. University of Southern California. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31 (4-A), p. 1695.

Russell, T. G. (1989). The effect of subliminal auditory messages upon academic achievement, U Oklahoma, US.


Russell, T. G., W. Rowe, et al. (1991). "Subliminal self-help tapes and academic achievement: An evaluation." Journal of Counseling & Development 69(4): 359-362.

This study investigated claims by commercial subliminal audio tape manufacturers regarding the effectiveness of these tapes to improve academic performance. Data from the study did not support the claims.


Rutstein, E.H. (1971). The effects of aggressive stimulation on suicidal patients: An experimental study of the psychoanalytical theory of suicide. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 31 (12-B), p. 7611.

Eleanor Rutstein performed this study in order to test empirically the psychoanalytical theory of suicide, which states that the necessary condition for suicidal behavior is that the unconscious hatred towards the original love object becomes turned back upon the self.
It was expected that, people who had made suicide attempts would turn their aggression inward when it was unconsciously evoked.

Subjects chosen were patients who had made serious suicide attempts and comparable patients who had never attempted suicide.

During the experimental sessions the subjects were exposed to subliminal aggressive, subliminal gratification, subliminal control and supraliminal aggressive stimuli.
The stimuli all contained both a picture and a verbal message.
The two experimental stimuli used were;

1) a supra- and a subliminal presentation of a picture of a young women about to stab an older women, with the caption reading "destroy mother", (aggressive), and

2) a supra- and a subliminal presentation of a picture of a little girl being embraced by an women, with the caption reading "mommy loves me", (gratification).

The results showed an increase in depression following the subliminal aggressive stimulus in the suicidal patients, and the results were significantly higher than during both the control condition and the supraliminal aggressive condition.

The expected difference was not found when the suicidal group was compared to the control group following the subliminal aggressive stimulation.

When suicidal subjects were made aware of a drive related stimulus of which they had been unaware, their reaction changed from pathological to non-pathological.


Rutstein, E.H. & Goldberger, L. (1973). The effects of aggressive stimulation on suicidal patients. An experimental study of the psychoanalytic theory of suicide. Private practice, New York Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Science, 2, pp 157-174.

Eleanor Rutstein and Leo Goldberger studied the effects of aggressive stimulation on suicidal patients.


Ruzumna, J.S. (1969). The effect of cognitive control on responsiveness to subliminal stimulation in social situations. Wayne State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 30 (1-B), pp 373-374.

Stephanie Ruzumna investigated the effect of cognitive controls upon sensitivity to subliminal stimuli in an ambiguous social situation.

It was hypothesized that subliminal perception necessitates sensitivity to subtle, low threshold cues in the environment.

It was also hypothesized that individuals who were able to avoid distracting elements and who easily incorporate new stimuli ("high" field-articulators and sharpeners) would be more responsive to elements and cues in their surrounding field.

From this it followed that these individuals would also be more responsive to low threshold or subliminal stimuli.

The results did not show the "high" field articulators and sharpeners to be more responsive to the subliminal stimuli.

A definite significant subliminal effect was also seen.


The Controversy in the Differences of Audio Subliminal Technology

Subliminal Messages, Subliminal Audio, Subliminal Advertising and How it Works

The Power of the Subconscious Mind and Positive Thoughts or Self Talk

The InnerTalk Subliminal Technology

Report: The Truth About Subliminal Programs
(PDF Download)

Peripheral Learning Reference Guide

The Subliminal Challenge

Grants for Research