Progressive Awareness Research

Improving Lives One Person at a Time since 1984.

Subliminal Literature: Bibliography and Review


Peripheral Desk Reference B

Babighian, G. (1969). Behavior and clinical importance of various subliminal tests in Meniere's disease. Minerva Otorinolaringol, 19 (4), pp 215-217. ISSN: 0026-4938, Language: ITALIAN.


Bagby, P.K. (1985). The effect of symbiotic and Oedipal subliminal stimuli on field independence and competitive tasks. University of Nevada, Reno. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (12-B, pt 1), p. 3927. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Patricia Bagby examined the effect of symbiotic and Oedipal subliminal stimuli on field independence and competitive tasks in college students.


Baker, L.E. (1937a). The influence of subliminal stimuli upon verbal behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20.

Lynn Baker sets out the influence of priming on verbal behavior.


Baker, L.E. (1937b). The pupillary response conditioned to subliminal auditory stimuli. Doctoral Dissertation, Vol W1937, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Lynn Baker examined the conditioning of the pupillary response by subliminal auditory stimuli.


Balay J. & Shevrin, H. (1988). The psychodynamic activation method, a critical review. American Psychologist, 43 (3), pp 161-174.

Jennifer Balay and Howard Shevrin review the psychodynamic activation method.
Researchers claim that the psychodynamic activation theory has been successfully tested experimentally with the use of specially constructed subliminal stimuli.
In this review, Balay and Shevrin claim that Silverman's work has internally inconsistent results with few attempts at exact replication.
The authors state that Silverman has expanded the applications of the method without carefully establishing the conditions under which results could be reliably obtained.
Balay and Shevrin discuss the weaknesses in the methodology used for the research programs.
There are also theoretical concerns about;

(a) the assumption that subliminal generic messages are consistent with the psychoanalytic theory regarding the nature of unconscious conflict, and

(b) the assumption that subliminal stimuli can activate unconscious conflict

Balay, J. and H. Shevrin (1989). "SPA is subliminal, but is it psychodynamically activating?" American Psychologist 44(11): 1423-1426. Responds to comments by J. Weinberger regarding the work of Silverman. The authors point out that their work took a closer look at the theoretical assumptions underlying the specific nature of subliminal stimuli and how it might activate conflict related unconscious fantasies. ***

Balay, J. S. (1987). The role of aggression in bipolar affective disorder: a subliminal approach. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (4-B), p. 1145.


Balota, D.A. (1982). Automatic and attentional activation in semantic and episodic memory: Implications for the utility of conscious awareness. University of South Carolina. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (12-B, Pt 1), p. 4952. ISSN: 0419-4209.

In this study, David Balota investigated the influence of a pattern-masked subliminal stimulus on long-term memory and response latency on lexical decisions.
Using the subliminal stimulus it was possible to produce activation in semantic memory. However it was not possible to direct conscious attention in long-term memory.

Baldwin, R.B. (1974). Kinetic art - use of subliminal stimulation of visual perception. Leonardo, 7 (1), pp 1-5.


Bancroft, W.J. (1976). Suggestology and suggestopedia; The theory of the Lozanov method. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 132857).

Jane Bancroft discusses the theory of the Lozanov method.

To be understood properly suggestology and suggestopedia should be considered in relation to yoga, Soviet and western work in suggestion and psychotherapy, the Russian school of physiological psychology and the Soviet concept of the unconscious, Soviet linguistics and pedagogy.

Suggestology investigates the subsensory signals or subliminal stimuli which come from the physical or social environment and which are absorbed into the unconscious mind before receiving a conscious expression. Suggestion, especially spoken suggestion, activates the reserve capacities of the mind or the memory.

Suggestopedia increases memorization capacities. Hypermnesia is facilitated by relaxation techniques (derived from yoga and autogenic therapy) which increase the subject's suggestibility to spoken suggestions or unconscious stimuli.

As lack of scientific data in "Suggestopedia" may lead to a negative reaction to the Lozanov thesis, Bancroft suggests translating the underlying original ideas and reconstructing the statistical evidence in accordance with the more rigorous and less ideologically oriented methods used in western science.


Banretti-Fuchs, K.M. (1967). Perception without awareness. Acta Psychologie, 26 (2), pp 148 160.

This paper examines visual perception with subliminal stimulation.


Barber, P.J. (1977). Experimenter bias against subliminal perception? A rejoinder. University of London, Birkbeck College. British Journal of Psychology, 68 (3), pp 281-82.

Paul Barber replies to criticisms regarding his replication of three subliminal perception experiments.
The argument that the replications were less sensitive to subliminal perception effects than the original experiment is discussed with regards to experimenter bias and instrument sensitivity.


Barber P.J. (1982). Perceptual defence: Attempted replication using the dark adaptation paradigm. A rejoinder. University of London, Birkbeck College, England. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 36 (3) pp 345-348. ISSN: 0008-4255.

Paul Barber discusses criticisms by A.G. Worthington (1964) regarding the replications by the present author and C. de la Mahotiere using the dark-adaptation paradigm for perceptual defense.
Barber's reasons for choosing this paradigm to replicate rather than a later version is explained, as are the reasons for the failure to replicate.

Barber, P.J. & Rushton, J.P. (1975). Experimenter bias and subliminal perception. University of London, Birkbeck College, England. British Journal of Psychology, 66 (3), pp 357-372.

Paul Barber and J. Philippe Rushton addressed the question that subliminal perception may be due, in part, to experimenter bias effects.
Studies by G.J. Smith et al (1959) and D.P. Spence & B. Holland (1962) were therefore replicated with the experimenters tested under blind and not-blind conditions.
Although there were diffuse Experimenter effects, there was not strong evidence to support the experimenter bias hypothesis.


Barchas, P.R. & Perlaki, K.M. (1986). Processing of preconsciously acquired information measured by hemispheric asymmetry and selection accuracy. Behavioral Neuroscience, 100 (3), pp 343-349. ISSN: 0735-7044.

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of instruction types on hemispheric activation and accurate selection of spatial stimuli that had previously been presented at a subliminal level.

The results supported the hypothesis that analytical subjects would be more likely to engage the parietal region of their left hemisphere and holistic subjects would favor relative activation of the right parietal region.

The findings are discussed in terms of a memory model of information processing.


Barenklau, K.E. (1981). Using subliminal in technical training. Training, 18 (12), pp 50-51. ISSN: 0095-5892.

It has been seen through subliminal advertising that people can be taught to respond positively to very brief images. Keith Barenklau explains how this technique may be used effectively in some kinds of technical training.

The human brain processes information in very short periods of time - perhaps 1/1000th of a second. Experience has shown that a high level of detail can be built up in memory, along with highly specific learning responses to images.

A training technique based on minimal perception was first developed at Ohio State University during World War 2. At exposures of 1/100th of a second, U.S. Navy gunners were trained to identify more than 2,000 silhouettes at one sitting without a mistake.
The major equipment involved in the training technique based on minimal perception is the tachistoscope, a device which regulates the duration of the flashed image. A tachistoscope mounted on a slide projector is all that is needed for this kind of instruction.

Short training sessions, of not more than 20 minutes, have proven to be the best. The learning requires intense concentration. The tachistoscope has been successfully used in teaching student drivers to recognize and respond quickly to potential vehicle collision situations.


Bargh, J.A., Bond, R.N., Lombardi, W.J. & Tota, M.E. (1986). The addictive nature of chronic and temporary sources of construct accessibility. New York University. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 50 (5), pp 869-878. ISSN: 0022-3514.

John Bargh, Ronald Bond, Wendy Lombardi and Mary Tota investigated the joint influence of long- and short-term sources of accessibility on impression formation.
Subjects with or without a long-term, chronically accessible construct for either kindness or shyness were first exposed subliminally to either 0 or 80 trait-related words. Subjects then read a behavioral description that was ambiguously relevant to the primed trait dimension, and they rated the target on several trait scales.

For both the kind and the shy trait conditions, chronic accessibility and subliminal priming reliably and independently increased the extremity of the impression ratings.
Results support a model in which long- and short-term sources of accessibility combine additively to increase the likelihood of the construct's use.

The subliminal priming effect appeared to be a general and pervasive phenomenon, insofar as it occurred for both an evaluatively positive and an evaluatively neutral trait dimension, and for subjects without, as well as with, a chronically accessible construct for the primes.
Implications for the nature of construct accessibility and the generality of automatic influences on social perception are discussed.


Bargh, J. A. (1992). Does subliminality matter to social psychology? Awareness of the stimulus versus awareness of its influence. Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford Press, New York, NY, US: 236-255.

(From a chapter)> The author asserts that it makes no difference how the information is processed, aware or unaware, but what does matter is the influence of the subliminality and whether the individual is aware of the ways in which the stimulus is interpreted.


Barkoczi, I., Sera, L. & Komlosi, A. (1983). Relationships between functional asymmetry of the hemispheres, subliminal perception and some defence mechanisms in various experimental settings. Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 26 (1), pp 1-20 ISSN: 0033-

I. Barkoczi, L. Sera and A. Komlosi studied the relationship between functional asymmetry of the hemispheres, subliminal perception and some defense mechanisms in various experimental settings.

The subjects participated in 2 experiments with different lateral eye-movement situation in order to examine the role of the 2 hemispheres in the processing of emotional stimuli. In the interval between their participation in the 2 experiments, the subjects were administered the Repression Sensitization Scale and the Defense Mechanism Inventory.

The 2 experiments involved recognition of aversively preconditioned stimuli in a divided field and P.H. Bakan's (1971) lateral eye-movement questioning method.

The results indicate that several indices obtained in the experimental situations (i.e., lateral eye movement, verbal reaction time, GSR, EEG) showed the right hemisphere to be superior in the preprocessing of emotionally loaded stimuli. The extent of this superiority, however, depended on degree of hemisphericity.

The findings support the formation of different defense mechanisms on the basis of learning. An interpretation of subception and defense mechanisms is presented.


Barratt, P.E.H. & Beh, H.C. (1964), Subliminal perception of the concept of vigilance. Australian Journal of Psychology, pp 107-119.


Barratt, P.E.H. & Herd, J.H. (1964). Subliminal conditioning of the alpha rhythm. Australian Journal of Psychology, 16, pp 9-19.


Battersby, W.S. & Defabaugh, G.L., (1969). Neural limitations of visual excitibility: after effects of subliminal stimulation. Vision Research, 9 (7), pp 757-768. ISSN: 0042-6989.

This paper examines the after-effects of subliminal stimulation on visual perception.


Bauer, W.D. (1986). The effects of conditional and unconditional subliminal stimuli on intrinsic motivation. University of Rochester. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (8-B), pp 2794 2795. ISSN: 0419-4209.

This study attempts to rule out the Self Perception accounts of findings in the intrinsic motivation literature. Behavioral and affective indices of intrinsic motivation were demonstrated to be effected outside of awareness. The Subliminal Psychodynamic Activation Method was used to present the experimental intervention outside of awareness.
Four groups of subjects were used, each receiving one of four messages: "Mommy and I are one"; "Mommy and I are one when I'm good"; "Mommy and I are one all the time" and the control "People are walking on the path".
Of particular interest were the negative emotions (ie. fear, shame and anxiety) reported in the "Mommy and I are one" group.
The results are discussed in terms of the implications for developmental origins of styles of self regulation as well as the importance of subject and dosage factors in responses to subliminally presented merging stimuli in the treatment control.


Baumeister, A. & Kistler, D. (1975). Facilitation of retention by white noise. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 20, pp 13-31.


Bayuk, M. & Bayuk, B.S. (1980). Suggestology and suggestopedia: A selective bibliography of western sources. ERID ED 192556 FL011596.

Milla Bayuk and Barry Bayuk compiled a bibliography with more than 200 titles, including addendum with 22 titles lists:

1) sources dealing with psychological and physiological research on the brain and it's function in learning, and

2) works treating subliminal suggestion and perception, and

3) papers on the influence of music on learning and behavior.

*** Beatty, S. E. and D. I. Hawkins (1989). "Subliminal stimulation: Some new data and interpretation." Journal of Advertising 18(3): 4-8.

Becker, H.C. (1976) Subliminal communication and hypnosis. Presentation to the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, 25th Annual Scientific Meeting. October 24-30. Denver.


Becker, H.C., Chamberlain, S.B., Heisse, J.W. Jr. & Marino, D.R. (1982). Subliminal communication and hypnosis. Paper presented at the Conference of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. Denver, October.

In this paper evidence is presented that shows how subliminal communication offers a broad spectrum of approaches for "human resource potentiation."

As subliminal stimuli appear to reach directly to the primitive and unconscious levels of the mind, this suggests a wide range of therapeutic, educational and industrial applications.
Supermarkets in the New Orleans area reported dramatic results using a "little black box" that delivers messages over a store's music below the threshold of normal hearing.

A typical black-box message repeats, "I am honest; I will not steal. If I steal, I'll get caught." According to Becker, the message "activates psychostatic unconscious wishes and desires" in the potential thief and creates a conflict between a conscious drive to steal and the unconscious, innate aversion to theft.


Becker, H.C. & Charbonnet, K.D. (1980). Applications of subliminal video and audio stimuli in therapeutic, educational, industrial and commercial settings. Eighth Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, March 28, 1980.


Becker, H.C., Charbonnet, K.D., Warren III, E.S., Corrigan. R.E., Schmidt III, L.F., Griffin, Jr., C.E., Penick III, R.M. & Ryder III, F.B. (1980). New subliminal processors for therapy, industry, education. 33rd Annual Conference of Engineering in Medicine and Biology (ACEMB), Washington, D.C., September 30-October 3.


Becker, H.C., Corrigan, R.E., Elder, S.T., Tallant, J.D. & Goldstein, M. (1965, August 22 27). Subliminal communication: Biological engineering considerations. Digest of the 6th International Conference of Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering, pp 452-453. Tokyo.


Becker, H.C. & Elder, S.T. (1966). Can subliminal perception be useful to the psychiatrist? Excerpta Medica (International Congress, Series No. 117). Abstract of paper presented to the IV World Congress of Psychiatry, Madrid, Spain, September 5-11.


Becker, H.C. & Glanzer, H.H. (1978). Subliminal communication: Advances in audiovisual engineering applications for behavior therapy and education. Proceedings of the 1978 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Region 3 Conference. Atlanta, April 10-12.


Becker, H.C., Jewell, J.F. & Alito, P. (1977, March 13017). Video and audio signal monitors/processors for subliminal communication in weight control. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), San Francisco.

Becker, H.C. & McDonagh. E.W. (1978). Subliminal communication (subliminal psychodynamic activation) in rehabilitative and preventive medicine. Proceedings of the 1978 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Region 3 Conference. Atlanta, April 10 12.

Begg, I. M., D. R. Needham, et al. (1993). "Do backward messages unconsciously affect listeners? No." Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 47(1): 1-14.

The authors studies the influence of reverse subliminal messages and determined that the forward meaning of backward statements does not leak through.

Beisgen, R.T., Jr. & Gibby, R.G., Jr. (1969). Autonomic and verbal discrimination of a subliminally learned task. Virginia Commonwealth University. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 29 (2), pp 503-507. ISSN: 0031-5125.

Robert Beisgen, Jr. and Robert Gibby, Jr. examines subliminal perception by employing classical conditioning techniques at a subliminal level.

The subjects were presented with ten nonsense syllable at a subliminal level, five of which were paired with an electric shock.

Subjects were then administered four tests for discrimination.
It was found that the subception effect described in prior studies can be empirically verified and that classical conditioning can take place at a level below conscious awareness.


Bell, P.D. (1986). The interspersal technique of Milton Erickson: Testing an operational definition. Fielding Institute. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (10-B), pp 3586-3587. ISSN: 0419 4209.

In this study, Paul Bell tested the hypothesis that an embedded message in a taped story would impact subjects differently than the same story without an embedded message.
Hostile messages were embedded within a fairy tale, and the volume level of the hostile/aggressive words was systematically lowered or raised in the context of a the story.
Skin conductance, semantic differential scores, and a content analysis were used to measure subject's responses to the embedded hostile message.
The hypothesized hostile message had no measurable effect on the subjects.
The operational definition of the interspersal technique was shown to be inadequate.
Recommendations were made for specific and systematic research into embedded auditory messages and the interspersal technique of Dr. Milton Erickson.

Bellack. A.S. & Williamson, D.A. (1982). Obesity and anorexia nervosa in D.M. Doleys, R.L. Meredith and A.R. Ciminero (Eds). Behavioral medicine: Assessment and treatment strategies. New York, Plenum.

Bellach and Williamson reported a positive correlation between subliminal suggestion and weight control.


Beloff, J. (1973). The subliminal and the extrasensory. University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Parapsychology Review, 4 (3), pp 23-27.

John Beloff compares ESP and subliminal perception.
ESP differs from subliminal perception in that ESP requires no sensory contact.
He states that the two are similar in the way they decode, process, and then shift information from unconscious to conscious awareness.
It is concluded that ESP may be regarded as a compromise between the mind omniscient and awareness filtered of everything not pertaining to biological needs.


Bender, B.G. (1973). Spatial interactions between the red- and green-sensitive color mechanisms of the human visual system. Imperial College, Applied Optics Section, London, England. Visual Research, 13 (12), pp 2205-2218.

The effects of subliminal annuli on the increment threshold of a central test spot, and the supraliminal annuli on the flicker threshold of a central test were used to psychophysically study spatial interactions in the visual system.

Previous evidence indicates that subliminal interactions occur at a level before the optic chiasma, while supraliminal interactions occur more centrally. Interactions were therefore tested at two levels in the visual system.

The visual stimuli were selected to stimulate individual spectral classes of color mechanisms, particularly interactions between red- and green-sensitive channels of foveal vision.
For both types of measurement interactions between center and surround regions of receptive fields occurred only between like spectral response mechanisms, whereas interactions within the center of receptive fields also occurred between the spectral mechanisms.


Benes, K. M., T. B. Gutkin, et al. (1990). "The effects of mellow and frenetic music on reported cognitions resulting from auditory subliminal messages." Journal of General Psychology 117(1): 83-89.

The authors report on the results of a study employing subliminal messages with both frenetic and mellow music. Subjects reported more word related imagery in the mellow music despite the absence of a subliminal correspondent.


Bengtsson, H. (1991). "Relationships between perceptual defence reactions and subjective tendencies in the phenomenal representation of facial displays of affect."

Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 32(1): 38-47. This study examined nonveridical reports of a stimulus-motif when presented subliminally. Results suggest a correspondence between the individuals perceptual distortions as a result of the threatening stimuli presented and their scheme of aggression and threat.

Ben-Hur, A. (1979). The relationship of systematic desensitization and the activation of symbiotic merging fantasy to speech anxiety reduction among college students.New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (5-B), pp 2351-2352.

Amos Ben-Hur compares the relationship of systematic desensitization and the activation of symbiotic merging fantasy to speech anxiety reduction.

Benoit, S. C. and R. L. Thomas (1992). "The influence of expectancy in subliminal perception experiments." Journal of General Psychology 119(4): 335-341.

Subjects listened to music without subliminal information. Believers in subliminal perception reported hearing subliminal messages more than non-believers and additionally reported greater mood changes.


Benson, H. (1979). The mind/body effect. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Herbert Benson shows that man has the power to influence the sympathetic nervous system, which is generally considered involuntary.


Berlin, P.D. (1984, March). An evaluation: Can subliminal messages be used to control shrinkage? Peter Berlin Report. (Price Waterhouse Newsletter), pp 5-6.

Peter Berlin argues in favor of using subliminal messages to control shrinkage.
It has been found that by playing inaudible messages shoplifting and employee theft is deterred.


Bernstein, B.R. (1986). The effects of subliminal symbiotic and oedipal stimuli on weight loss in obese women. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, (8-B), 2795. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Bonnie Bernstein examined the effects of subliminal symbiotic and oedipal stimuli on weight loss in obese women.


Bernstein, I. H., V. Bissonnette, et al. (1989). "Semantic priming: Subliminal perception or context?" Perception & Psychophysics 45(2): 153-161.

This study demonstrated that masked priming can effect the processing of subsequent processing of semantically related targets.


Bernstein, I. H. and K. R. Welch (1991). "Awareness, false recognition, and the Jacoby Whitehouse effect." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120(3): 324-328.

This study sought to replicate the so-called Jacoby-Whitehouse effect. The authors suggest two specific nonsubliminal mechanisms as possible explanations for the unconsious processing of context stimuli and resulting false or true recognition.


Bernstein, J.H. & Eriksen, C.W. (1965). Effects of "subliminal" prompting on paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, pp 33-38.

Berry, D.M. (1985). Effects of educative/support groups and subliminal psychodynamic activation on bulimia in college women. University of California, Davis. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (11-B), p. 3612. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Diana Berry examined the effects of group therapy and subliminal psychodynamic activation on bulimia.

Berry, D. M. and S. I. Abramowitz (1989). "Educative/support groups and subliminal psychodynamic activation for bulimic college women." International Journal of Eating Disorders 8(1): 75-85.

Subliminal psychodynamic activation effects were observed in this study evaluating effects on bingeing and emotional distress. The subliminal stimuli appeared to exert a direct treatment effect on both restrained eating and emotional distress.


Besnard, D. and A. Channouf (1994). "Subliminal perception of familiar stimuli and solving easy problems." Anuario de Psicologia 62(3): 41-53.

This study evaluated the effects of subliminally presented familiar and unfamiliar faces and words.


Bevan, W. (1964a). Subliminal stimulation: a pervasive problem for psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 61 (2), pp 84-92.


Bevan, W. (1964b). Contemporary problems in adaption level theory. Psychological Bulletin, 61 (3), pp 161-187.


Bevan, W. & Pritchard, J.F. (1963). Effect of "subliminal" tones upon the judgment of loudness. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66.


Bianki, V.L. & Kurochkin, V.A. (1976). Callosal influences on the focus of maximum activity in the visual cortex during subliminal stimulation. Biol. Nauki., (7), pp 76-81. ISSN: DA3B 0000, Language: RUSSIAN.

Bianki & Kurochkin examined the effect of subliminal stimulation on the influence of the Corpus Callosum on the focus of maximum activity in the visual cortex.


Black, R.W. & Bevan, W. (1960). The effect of subliminal shock upon the judged intensity of weak shock. American Journal of Psychology, 73.


Blakkan, R. (1982). Fear and loving in regulation land: Liquor marketers learn to live within the rules and like it/what some of the fuss is about. Advertising Age, 53 (34), pp M-22-23, M-26. ISSN: 0001-8899.

Renee Blakkan discusses the liquor business in the USA.
Due to the fear of even more government regulations and maybe even the return to the pre prohibition abuses, the liquor market is amongst the most tightly controlled and self-restricted industries in the U.S.

Among the areas under discussion for changes in the federal laws regulating the advertising and marketing of alcohol is the use of subliminal advertising.


Blasdel, P. F. (1989). Subliminal psychodynamic activation and academic achievement, U Oklahoma, US.


Block, M.P. & Vanden Bergh, B.G. (1985). Can you sell subliminal messages to consumers? Michigan State University. Journal of Advertising, 14 (3), pp 59-62. ISSN: 0091-3367.

Martin Block and Bruce Vanden Bergh conducted a telephone survey of 330 adults to determine consumer attitudes toward the use of subliminal stimulation techniques in a self improvement product.

Consumers responses reflected a concern about being influenced to do something they did not want to do.

The study also found that although consumers believed subliminal advertising could affect behavior, they were also skeptical toward the use of subliminal messages for the purpose of self improvement.

The study found that those consumers most favorable toward the subliminal technique had prior experience with computers and video equipment and appeared to be less educated, younger, and more often unmarried than those subjects less favorable toward the subliminal technique.

Those found to be most aware and concerned about the use of subliminal advertising were found to be white, well-educated and affluent, whereas those more favorable to the use of subliminal techniques for self-improvement were found to be less educated and to be experiencing some family problems.


Bloomquist, D. W. (1985). Teaching sensation and perception: Its ambiguous and subliminal aspects. The G. Stanley Hall lecture series, Vol. 5. C. J. S. Anne M. Rogers, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, US: 161-203.

Identifies problems inherent to the study of perception. Discusses subliminal advertsising, concepts of sensation and perception, and ambiguous figures.

Blum, G.S. (1975) Reply to Jennings and George. University of California, Santa Barbara. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 41 (3), pp 957-958.

Gerald Blum criticizes L.B. Jennings and S.G. George's attempted replication of his study on perceptual vigilance ad defense.
He stresses that,

(a) the replication was not satisfactory because of shortcomings in method, including use of a different set of stimuli and that,

(b) Jennings and George missed the theoretical point that a subjects report is the result of a perceptual-cognitive sequence of events.


Boardman, W. K. & Gladstone S. (1962). Effects of subliminal anchors upon judgments of size. Perceptual Motor Skills, 14.


Bonke, B. and M. Jelicic (1991). "On unconscious processes." Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en Haar Grensgebieden 46(2): 51-67.

The authors provide an overview of subliminal perception, unconsious motivations and implicit memory.

Bonnet, E.B. (1974). The utilization of audio tapes in hypnosis. Journal of the American Institute of Hypnosis. 15 (2), pp 82-87, 92.

Eldon Bonnet discusses the use of audio tapes in hypnoanalysis.
Three areas of utilization are discussed:

(a) aid in self-improvement,

(b) use during times of sleep, and

(c) general updating of current literature for the practitioner.

Bonnet argues that there is no such thing as "sleep learning," as the term is commonly used. He therefore discusses and recommends audio tape "twilight state" imprinting programs.


Borgeat, F. (1983). Psychophysiological effects of two different relaxation procedures: Progressive relaxation and subliminal relaxation. Louis-H, Lafontaine Hospital, Psychiatric Research Center, Montreal, Canada. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 8 (4), pp 181-185. ISSN: 0702-8466.

Francois Borgeat compared the physiological effects of progressive relaxation and subliminal relaxation. The experimental technique involved the audition of soft music subliminal suggestions of relaxation.

The subjects participated in a four week training with these two methods in two laboratory testing sessions (one for each method).

During the training frontal EMG, heart rate, skin conductance levels, and responses were recorded. These psychological data were submitted to multivariate and univariate ANCOVAs.
The was no significant difference between the physiological effects of the two techniques.
Progressive relaxation was more effective in the reduction of EMG levels of the more anxious subjects (on the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire).

The general lack of difference between the physiological states induced by two methods different in their procedure and in the subjective effects is interpreted in the light of the hypothesis of a common and natural "relaxation response" that can be facilitated by a large variety of techniques.


Borgeat, F., Chabot, R. & Chaloult, L. (1981). Subliminal perception and level of activation. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26 (4), pp 255-259. ISSN: 0008-9824. Language: FRENCH.

Francois Borgeat, Ronald Chabot and Louis Chaloult reported positive results in clinical work with smokers, alcoholics and obese patients.

Two noteworthy studies were conducted using double blind experiments. It was found that the auditory subliminal messages influenced the level of activation on their subjects.
One study of auditory subliminal messages directed the person to act or not to act.

Activation changes were estimated through a variation in Mood Adjective Check List scores.
Four of six factors on the adjective checklist were statistically significant. All six factors showed response. Two-thirds were statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence.
In the second experiment three forms of auditory subliminal stimulation were used; an emotional message, a neutral message and a pure tone.

In this study, it was found that the emotional message produced significantly different results from the other two. In other words the subliminal message, whose language is that of emotion, triggered subjective states and processed the message.
In both these experiments, the semantic content inducted responses in subjects who remained consciously unaware of it.

It was concluded that the parameters regulating subliminal response and susceptibility remain largely undefined and in need of systematic investigation.


Borgeat, F. & Chaloult, L. (1985). A relaxation experiment using radio broadcasts. University of Montreal, Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, Canada. Canada's Mental Health, 33 (1), pp 11-13. ISSN: 0008-2791.

Francois Borgeat and Louis Chaloult describe a primary prevention activity in which a radio station broadcasted music in which subliminal relaxation messages had been mixed.
Also discussed are topics related to health, stress, and relaxation therapy.
A survey of 100 listeners showed that a majority had some previous experience with relaxation therapy and that most used the recordings to decrease tension and improve sleep.

The importance of communicating to the public appropriate knowledge and techniques in the area of self-care is discussed.


Borgeat, F., Chaloult, L. & Chabot, R. (1981). Subliminal perception: neurophysiological models and aspects of research in Quebec. Union Medical Canada, 110 (1), pp 19-22. ISSN: 0041-6959, Language: FRENCH.


Borgeat, F., Elie, R., Chaloult, L. & Chabot, R. (1985). Psychophysiological responses to masked auditory stimuli. Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, Psychiatric Research Center, Montreal, Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 30 (1), pp 22-27. ISSN: 0706-7437.

The purpose of the study was to compare effects of masked auditory verbal stimuli (words masked by a dominant-sounding white noise) presented at increasing intensities on the physiological responses of 20 21-30 year old healthy women.
Subjects were presented with sexual-emotional words (rape, whore, penis) and neutral words (veil, skate, tennis) in two weekly experimental sessions.
In each two-hour session, two stimuli content were used (neutral and sexual-emotional) as well as two different sets of instructions - attendance and nonattendance to the stimuli.

The hypothesis tested was that physiological responses can be influenced by the meaning of subliminal auditory stimuli.

Verbal stimuli, masked by a 40 db white noise, were presented to the subjects at increasing intensities by increments of 5 db starting at 0 db.

At each increment physiological effects (frontal EMG, heart rate, skin conductance, and muscular activity) were measured.

In this way psychophysiological responses to stimuli below the thresholds of identification and detection were observed.

With the subjects not paying attention to the sound, the physiological effects of aggressive subliminal words were weaker than with neutral subliminal words.

This suggests that the women were protected from responding to potentially disturbing stimulus of which they were not aware.

When concentrating on the sound, this protective mechanism was less evident.


Borgeat, F., J. Boissonneault, et al. (1989). "Psychophysiological responses to subliminal auditory suggestions for activation." Perceptual & Motor Skills 69(3, Pt 1): 947-953.

In this study the authors masked a subliminal activation message with 40-db of white noise. Measuring subjects galvanic skin response and heart rate, the researchers found an effect on heart rate but not skin conductance.


Borgeat, F. & Goulet, J. (1983) Psychophysiological changes following auditory subliminal suggestions for activation and deactivation. Louis-H. Lafontaine Hospital, Psychiatric Research Center, Montreal, Canada. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 56 (3), pp 759-766. ISSN: 0031-5125.

Francois Borgeat and Jean Goulet exposed 18 normal 21- to 41-year-old subjects alternately to a control situation and to 25-db activating and deactivating suggestions masked by a 40-db white noise.

Physiological measures (EMG, heart rate, skin-conductance levels and responses, and skin temperature) were recorded while subjects listened passively to the suggestions, during a stressing task that followed, and after that task.

The MANOVA showed a significant effect of the activation subliminal suggestions during and following the stressing task. This result suggests effects of consciously, unrecognized perceptions on psychophysiological responses.

Borgeat and Goulet reported positive results in clinical work with smokers, alcoholics and obese patients.


Borgeat, F. & Pannetier, M.F. (1982). Interest of cumulative electrodermal responses in subliminal auditory perception: preliminary study. Louis H. Lafontaine Hospital, Center de Recherche Psychiatrique, Montreal, Canada. Encephale, 8 (4), pp 487-499. ISSN: 0013-7006, Language: FRENCH.

Borgeat & Pannetier examined the usefulness of averaging electrodermal responses for research on subliminal auditory perception.

Eighteen female subjects were exposed to three kinds (emotional, neutral and 1000 Hz tone) of auditory stimulation, which were repeated six times at three intensities (detection threshold, 10 dB under this threshold and 10 dB above identification threshold). Analysis of electrodermal potential responses showed that the number of responses was related to the emotionality of subliminal stimuli presented at detection threshold but not at 10 dB under it.
The data interpretation proposed refers to perceptual defence theory.

This study indicates that electrodermal response count constitutes a useful measure for subliminal auditory perception research, but averaging those responses was not shown to bring additional information.


Borgeld, T. W. (1990). The effects of references to mother during early childhood using the subliminal psychodynamic activation method, U Oklahoma, US.


Bornstein, R.F. (1987). Subliminal mere exposure effects and conscious cognition: a study of attitude changes in response to stimuli perceived without awareness. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (9-B), p. 3941.


Bornstein, R.F., Leone, D.R. & Galley, D.J. (1987). The generalizability of subliminal mere exposure effects: influence of stimuli perceived without awareness on social behavior. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 53 (6), pp 1070-1079.


Bornstein, R. F. & Masling, J.M. (1984). Subliminal psychodynamic stimulation: Implications for psychoanalytic theory and therapy. State University of New York, Buffalo. International Forum for Psychoanalysis, 1 (2), pp 187-204. ISSN: 0738-8217.

Robert Bornstein and Joseph Masling discuss the work of L.H. Silverman et al.
Topics discussed are;

1) the idea that a subliminal stimulus can affect the psychopathology of patients in analysis,

2) the difference between laboratory research and practical application in psychoanalysis,

3) the experimental manipulations of the work by Silverman, et al.

4) the assertion by Silverman at al, that the perception of the message takes place at an unconscious level, and

5) the oneness fantasies with respect to schizophrenics.


Bornstein, R. F. (1989). "Subliminal techniques as propaganda tools: Review and critique." Journal of Mind & Behavior 10(3): 231-262

The author suggests that the research demonstrates that subliminal messages can produce changes in attitude and behavior and therefore may have an effective role in propaganda.


Bornstein, R. F. (1990). Subliminal mere exposure and psychodymanic activation effects: Implications for the psychoanalytic theory of conscious and unconscious mental processes. Empirical studies of psychoanalytic theories, Vol. 3. Joseph Masling, Analytic Press, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US: 55-88.

The author's chapter reviews the history of subliminal research and discusses some of the methodological problems. He further examines and evaluates the psychodynamic activation research and the model for conscious/unconscious processing.


Bornstein, R. F. (1990). "Critical importance of stimulus unawareness for the production of subliminal psychodynamic activation effects: A meta-analytic review." Journal of Clinical Psychology 46(2): 201-210.

Used meta-analysis to access the magnitude of change in subjects produced as a result of subliminal and supraliminal drive related stimuli from 11 subliminal psychodynamic activation studies. Results support L. Silverman's hypothesis that drive related stimuli must be presented subliminally to produce subliminal psychodynamic activation.


Bornstein, R. F. (1992). Inhibitory effects of awareness on affective responding: Implications for the affect-cognition relationship. Emotion. Review of personality and social psychology, No. 13. Margaret S. Clark, Sage Publications, Inc, Newbury Park, CA, US: 235-255.

Bornstein's chapter in this work examines the affect-cognition relationship with respect to subliminal psychodynamic activation theory.


Bornstein, R. F. and T. S. Pittman, Eds. (1992). Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. New York, NY, US, Guilford Press. (from the jacket) This landmark volume brings together the work of the world's leading researchers in subliminal perception. This compilation marks a fundamental shift in the current study of subliminal effects: No longer in question is the notion that perception without awareness occurs. Now, the emphasis is on elucidating the parameters of subliminal effects and understanding the conditions under which stimuli perceived without awareness significantly influence affect, cognition, and behavior. /// "Perception Without Awareness" firmly establishes subliminal perception within the mainstream of psychological science. Well represented here are the two main research branches that have emerged: One directly investigates the nature of subliminal effects; the other uses subliminal techniques as tools for investigating psychological phenomena such as hypnosis, dreaming, repression, social judgment and inference, psychopathology, and symptom formation. /// Timely and thought-provoking, "Perception Without Awareness" is sure to be of enormous interest to all psychoanalytic clinicians and scholars, as well as cognitive, clinical, and social psychologists whose work touches upon issues relating to psychopathology, perception, cognition, and memory.


Bornstein, R. F. (1992). Subliminal mere exposure effects. Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford Press, New York, NY, US: 191-210. (from the chapter) discuss a line of research in which certain experiments fulfill the criteria put forth by the dissociation model to establish perception without awareness while simultaneously fulfilling Reingold and Merikle's (1988) direct/indirect criteria for demonstrating subliminal effects / after reviewing research on "subliminal mere exposure" (SME) effects ...I present a theoretical model of the mere exposure effect that accommodates findings in this area more completely than do existing models / preliminary tests of this new theoretical model are described, and previous research on SME effects is discussed in the context of the model / the implications of this theoretical framework for our understanding of the findings produced in other areas of subliminal perception research is discussed.


Bornstein, R. F. (1992). "Critical importance of stimulus unawareness for the production of subliminal psychodynamic activation effects: An attributional model." Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 180(2): 69-76.

Bornstein describes a new theory of subliminal psychodynamic activation effects.


Bornstein, R. F. and P. R. D'Agostino (1992). "Stimulus recognition and the mere exposure effect." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 63(4): 545-552.

The authors conducted two experiments to re-examine the mere exposure effect. Their results tended to support the mere exposure effect, showing that stimuli perceived without awareness can produce substantially stronger exposure effects than stimuli presented in a manner where full awareness processes the information.


Bornstein, R. F. and P. R. D'Agostino (1994). "The attribution and discounting of perceptual fluency: Preliminary tests of a perceptual fluency/attributional model of the mere exposure effect." Social Cognition 12(2): 103-128.


Borysenko, J. & Borysekno, M. (1983). On psychoneuroimmunology: How the mind influences health and disease...and how to make the influence beneficial. Executive Health, 19. p 10.


Bouchard, S.J. (1984). Effects of a self-administered subliminal-relaxation treatment on anxiety. United States International University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (6-B), p. 1906. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Susan Bouchard studied the effects of combining subliminal and relaxation training principles on anxiety via subliminal suggestions to relax.
The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four conditions:

1) subliminal-relaxation treatment,

2) subliminal symbiotic activation treatment,

3) relaxation training treatment, or

4) neutral musical stimulus control condition.

The subjects listened daily to one of four recordings for 1 day. Pre- and post-treatment scores on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS) were obtained. Subjects also rated their moods daily on Likert-type scale.
It was hypothesized that

1) significant between group differences would be found, and

2) subliminal-relaxation treatment would be associated with significantly greater reductions than the other conditions.

The four groups did not differ significantly demographically or in levels of pre-treatment anxiety.

The study's hypotheses were not supported.

There was no significant between-group differences were observed in anxiety reduction.
The average reduction of the subliminal-relaxation treatment group was no significantly greater.

All four groups reduced anxiety significantly during the 10 days.


Bovier, P., Broekkamp, C.L. & Lloyd, K.G. (1982). Enhancing GABAergic transmission reverses the aversive state in rats induced by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal grey region. Clinique Psychiatrique Bel-Air, Geneva, Switzerland. Brain Research, 248 (2), pp 313-320. ISSN: 0006-8993.

Phillipe Bovier, Chris Broekkamp and Kenneth Lloyd found that, when GAB agonist progabide and diazepam where given together in subliminal doses to Charles River Rats, the combination exerted a marked auto-aversive effect.


Bower, B. (1987). Subliminal messages: changes for the better? Science News, 129 (13), pp 156 158.

Bruce Bower's article discusses the work of Lloyd Silverman, and in particular, Silverman's use of a tachistoscope to project subliminal words.
The "Mommy and I are one" message, as used by Thomas Budzynski, is also discussed.


Bowersox, R.E. (1981). The theory of subliminal perception: How it relates to subliminal stimulation in advertising. Unpublished report, Clarion University of Pennsylvania.


Brandeis, D. & Lehmann, D. (1986). Event-related potentials of the brain and cognitive processes: Approaches and applications. Special issue: Methods in neuropsychology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland. Neuropsychologia, 24 (1), pp 151-168. ISSN: 0028-3932.

Brandeis and Lehmann argue that early event-related potential (ERP) components are valuable in clinical testing of the afferent sensory systems in the absence of anamnestic or clinical pathology.

Examples of spatial analysis show that;

1) different ERP field configurations follow the presentation of noun and verb meaning of homophone words,

2) that the ERP effects to subjective contours resemble those of attention in time course and topography,

3) that the cognitive P300 component reflects the specific stimulus location, and

4) that subliminal information influences the configuration of the late ERP fields.


Brannon, L. A. and T. C. Brock (1994). The subliminal persuasion controversy: Reality, enduring fable, and Polonius's weasel. Persuasion: Psychological insights and perspectives. T. C. B. Sharon Shavitt, Allyn & Bacon, Inc, Boston, MA, US: 279-293.

(from the book) popular belief in the power of subliminal manipulation appears to be increasing / ironically, the widespread belief in subliminal persuasion--despite the absence of scientific evidence--is based on the very factors that lead psychologists to doubt its effectiveness / discuss the evidence for and against subliminal persuasion and explain why popular belief in it is likely to persist indefinitely.


Branscomb, L. P. (1989). An exploration of the fantasy of the primary bond: Use of the subliminal psychodynamic activation method in adult women, Georgia State U, Coll of Arts & Sciences, US.


Brennan, S.N. (1984). The effect of subliminal separation-individuation schemas on moral reasoning and mood in depressed and non-depressed women. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (6-b), p. 1907. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Sharon Brennan examines the effect of subliminal separation-individuation conflicts on the moral reasoning and the depressive moods of female college students.


Brice, L., Taylor, E., Lionberger, W.J. & Morris, W.P. (1986). What you should know about subliminal perception and subliminal self-improvement tapes. Gateways Research Institute, Inc.

This booklet contains a review of literature and information to encourage use of subliminal self-help tapes.

Areas covered include;

1) what you should know about subliminal perception,

2) scientific evidence that show how subliminal messages influence behavior,

3) how you can use subliminal perception for self-improvement,

4) how Gateways make their tapes,

5) who uses subliminal tapes, and

6) questions and answers regarding the use of subliminal tapes.


Brody, N. (1989). "Unconscious learning of rules: Comment on Reber's analysis of implicit learning." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118(3): 236-238.

The author suggests a discrimination procedure to establish awareness levels and comments on the failure to do same by Reber.


Bromfield, R.N. (1986). Subliminal psychodynamic activation: Demonstration, oedipal factors and personality correlates. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (11-B), p. 4005. ISSN 0419-4209.

Richard Bromfield examined the effects of the subliminal tachistoscope stimulation of unconscious oedipal wishes & personality traits on the dart throwing performance of male college students.


Bronstein, A.A. (1977). An experimental study of internalization fantasies on schizophrenic men. Yeshiva University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (9-B), p. 4665.


Bronstein, A.A. & Rodin, G.C. (1983). An experimental study of internalization fantasies in schizophrenic men. Children's Hospital Medical Center, San Francisco, CA. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 20 (4), pp 408-416. ISSN: 0478-7013.

Abbot Bronstein and Gail Rodin explored the types of internalization fantasies involving the constructs (or concepts or fantasies) of mother that are ameliorative in schizophrenia.

Four groups of 30 subjects each received a subliminal experimental stimulus designed to activate a different fantasy of internalization as well as a subliminal neutral control message.

The experimental messages were;

1) "Mommy and I are one",

2) "Mommy and I are the same",

3) "Mommy is inside me", and

4) "Mommy and I are alike".

The control message was "People are walking."

The assessments of pathological thinking and behavior were made before and after the presentation of each stimulus.

"Mommy and I are one" was the only stimulus to be found effective in reducing pathology.
The results lend strong support to earlier findings that fantasies of oneness identification with the "good" mother are ameliorative for schizophrenics.


Brooks, J. (1985). The little ad that isn't there: a look at subliminal advertising. Consumer Reports, 23, pp 7-10.

In this article Brooks describes experiments by James Vicary where words were flashed on a movie screen at speeds too fast to register consciously. These words were perceived and acted upon by the subconscious mind.

In a six-week test of the technique (1957), viewers at a New Jersey movie theater were subjected to "Eat popcorn" and "Drink Coca-Cola" messages flashed on the screen every five seconds for about 1/1000 of a second whilst watching Kim Novak in the film Picnic
Intermission sales of Coca-Cola and popcorn increased by 18 percent and 58 percent respectively.

However not everyone in the theater bought these products.
Follow-up surveys showed that people who did not ordinarily eat popcorn or drink cola were not influenced to do so.


Brosgole, L. & Contino, A.F. (1973). Intrusion of subthreshold learning upon later performance. Psychological Reports, 32 (3, part 1), pp 795-798.

Leonard Brosgole and Angelo Contino conducted two experiments to determine the frequency with which subliminal learning intrudes on subsequent performance.
The responses from the serial learning experiments were analyzed to specify the types of intrusion.

It was found that materials from the past interfered with performance.
They found that subthreshold (not subliminal) learning may intrude on and interfere with task performance.


Brush, J. (1982). Subliminal stimulation in asthma: Imaginal, associative and physiological effects. Boston University Graduate School. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (4-B), pp 1294 1295. ISSN 0419-4209.

Twenty asthmatic and twenty non-asthmatic subjects viewed tachistoscopic presentations, at speeds to rapid for conscious awareness, of pictures and words representing oral aggression, abandonment, mutual helpfulness, symbiotic merging, or neutral human relationships.

Following each presentation, recordings were made of subjects' ten-minute free association. The subjects also drew pictures of two people, completed a Profile of Mood State Scale and had their pulmonary airway conductance measured.

Predictions regarding specific hypotheses were not supported by significant results.
Post-hoc analyses revealed that asthmatics responded more positively than non-asthmatics to stimuli implying unity of mother and child.


Bryant-Tuckett, R.M, (1981). The effects of subliminal merging stimuli on the academic performance of emotionally handicapped students. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (12-B Pt. 1), p. 4654. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Rose Bryant-Tuckett examined the effects of subliminal symbiotic gratification stimulation on the academic performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents.


Bryant-Tuckett, R. & Silverman, L.H. (1984). Effects of the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on the academic performance of emotionally handicapped students. Free School District, Lakeside-Ramapo Union, Spring Valley NY. Journal of Counseling Psychology 31 (3), pp 295-305. ISSN: 0022-0167.

Rose-Marie Bryant-Tuckett and Lloyd Silverman studied the effects of the subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies on the academic performance of emotionally disturbed adolescents.

The subjects were divided into experimental and control groups matched for age, IQ, and reading ability. Each group was further divided to receive only words or words with a picture.

Both groups were seen five times a week for six weeks for tachistoscopic exposures of subliminal stimulus.

The experimental group received the stimulus "Mommy and I are one" without a picture and with a picture of a woman pleasantly gazing at an infant cradled in her arms.

The control group was exposed to the neutral stimulus "People are walking" without a picture and with a picture of two bland-looking men.

The experimental group showed greater academic achievement and adaptive functioning. Academic achievement was measured by improvement on a California Achievement Reading Test. They showed improved adaptive functioning in five of six secondary variables - arithmetic achievement, self-concept, handing in homework assignments, independent classroom functioning, and self-imposed limits on television viewing.

It was suggested that activation of unconscious symbiotic fantasies can increase the effectiveness of counseling and teaching.


Budzynski, T. (1977). Tuning in on the twilight zone. Psychology Today. 11 (3), pp 38-44.

Thomas Budzynski discusses the use of subliminal messages in his clinical practice.
Part of his work involves conducting stress reduction seminars using subliminal messages as well as conventional techniques.
Budzinski has observed that subliminal messages "speed up the recovery process."

By using positive subliminal affirmations, his clients gain self-esteem and assertiveness.


Burkham, R. (1982). The effect of subliminal presentation of two gratifying fantasies on female depressives. St. Louis University Dissertation Abstracts International 42, (10-B), 4183. ISSN: 0419-4209.

Robert Burkham replicated Nissenfield's study (1979) and extended it. Nissenfield had reported that procedures intended to elicit unconscious gratifying symbiotic fantasies reduced depressive symptoms among depressed female psychiatric patients.

This study examined the impact of presumed gratifying rapprochement fantasies in reducing depressive symptoms.

Subjects were subliminally presented with a neutral control stimulus, a symbiotic stimulus and a rapprochement stimulus.

The effect of presenting these three stimuli was measured by change scores on seven dependent variables which measured self-reported and experimenter-rated cognitions and effects, self-esteem, psychomotor retardation, as facets of depression, and Silverman's measure of pathological non-verbal behavior.

The subjects manifested no differential response to the stimuli whatsoever. The failure to replicate Nissenfield's results was attributed largely to Nissenfield's unjustifiable data analysis strategy. The possibility of an experimenter effect which either enables or hinders subliminal psychodynamic activation was also considered.


Byrne, D. (1959). The effect of subliminal food stimulus on verbal responses, Journal of Applied Psychology, 43 (4), pp 249-252.

In this article Byrne discusses earlier studies on the effects of subliminal stimuli.
It is shown that there is a "greater than chance accuracy in the discrimination of visual, auditory and olfactory stimuli".
The discrimination occurs regardless of whether the stimuli are "rendered subliminal by distance...low intensity of the stimuli...low intensity of surrounding illumination...or lack of attention".


Byrne,. W. (1979), Let's try harder - and smarter - to solve the problems posed by low achievers Training, 16 (9), p. 122. ISSN: 0095-5892.

William L. Byrne discusses the effects low achievers have on corporations and employees.

Amongst the possible solutions posed for dealing with poor management, is the use of subliminal messages geared to reinforcing good management concepts.


The Controversy in the Differences of Audio Subliminal Technology

Subliminal Messages, Subliminal Audio, Subliminal Advertising and How it Works

The Power of the Subconscious Mind and Positive Thoughts or Self Talk

The InnerTalk Subliminal Technology

Report: The Truth About Subliminal Programs
(PDF Download)

Peripheral Learning Reference Guide

The Subliminal Challenge

Grants for Research