Progressive Awareness Research

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Subliminal Literature: Bibliography and Review


Peripheral Desk Reference IJ

Ionescu, M. D. and M. H. Erdelyi (1992). The direct recovery of subliminal stimuli. Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford Press, New York, NY, US: 143-169.

(from the chapter) the notion that subliminal stimuli can exert influence on the unaware observer, although still controversial, rapidly becoming the consensus view in experimental psychology / it has often been assumed ...that such "subception" effects imply that the stimuli are registered and stored unconsciously / if so, might it be possible to go beyond indirect effects (such as influences on free associations, fantasy, and affective or social judgments) and show the availability of subliminal contents by recovering them directly into consciousness / this last question, on the retrievability into consciousness of subliminal inputs, is the topic of the present chapter.


Ionescu, M. D. (1993). Hypermnesia for subliminal stimuli, City U New York, US.


Jackson, J.M. (1982). A comparison of the effects of subliminally presented fantasies of merger with each parent on the pathology of male and female schizophrenics. New York University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (5-B), pp 1616-1617. ISSN: 0419-4209.


Jackson, J.M. (1983). Effects of subliminal stimulation of oneness fantasies on manifest pathology in male vs. female schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 17 (5), pp 280-289. ISSN: 0022-3018.

Jonathan Jackson examined the effects of subliminally activated fantasies of oneness with each parent on the manifest pathology of schizophrenic men and women.

The subjects were treated individually for 3 subliminal stimulation (SST) sessions on different days, when measures of pathological thinking and behavior were obtained for a baseline assessment before SST, and a critical assessment after SST.

All subjects received two subliminal oneness stimuli and a neutral-control message;

1) "Mommy and I are one" plus congruent picture,

2) "Daddy and I are one" plus congruent picture, and

3) a neutral-control message "people are walking" plus a congruent picture.

Each subject was administered a family interview and a family picture test (a card from the Children's Apperception Test).

The results for symbiotic stimulation show that;

(a) the "mommy" stimulus reduced pathological behavior in males but not females, and

(b) the "daddy" stimulus reduced pathological thinking in females but not males.

The results of the family interview and picture test indicate that the more male Subject experienced active involvement with one parent, the more they reduced pathology after the oneness stimulus involving that parent, and the less they did so after the stimulus involving the other parent.


Jacoby, L. L. and K. Whitehouse (1989). "An illusion of memory: False recognition influenced by unconscious perception." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118(2): 126-135.

Two studies were conducted by the researchers demonstrating that an illusion of memory can be generated by unconscious perception. Unconscious influences are discussed in relation to the attribution process.


Jacoby, L. L., J. P. Toth, et al. (1992). Lectures for a layperson: Methods for revealing unconscious processes. Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives. T. S. P. Robert F. Bornstein, Guilford Press, New York, NY, US: 81-120.

(from the chapter) the importance of subjective experience / present evidence to show that subjective experience is constructed and reflects an unconscious inference or attribution process / argue that awareness is a prerequisite for conscious control and that an important function of conscious control is to oppose unconscious influences / describe the methodological advantages of arranging a situation such that consciously controlled and unconscious processes act in opposition to one another /// describe the process dissociation procedure and show how it can be used to derive separate quantitative estimates of consciously controlled and unconscious processes / discuss the advantages of separating the contributions of conscious and unconscious processes within a task as compared to focusing on dissociations between tasks and identifying tasks with particular types of processes / (conclude) by identifying unconscious influences with automaticity and by emphasizing parallels between unconscious perception and effects produced by dividing attention.


Jacoby, L. L. and C. M. Kelley (1992). "A process-dissociation framework for investigating unconscious influences: Freudian slips, projective tests, subliminal perception, and signal detection theory." Current Directions in Psychological Science 1(6): 174-179.

Unconscious processes can be treated in a similar manner to signal detection theory.


Jeffmar, M. (1976).Ways of cognitive action: A study of syncretism, flexibility and exactness. Lund University. Psychological Research Bulletin, NO. 1 (Mono series), 47 pages.

Marianne Jeffmar studied the relationships among syncretism, flexibility and exactness, variables of the Gestalt Completion Test (GCT) and susceptibility to subliminal stimulation.
Subjects were administered a test for reproduction, 5 tests of syncretism and flexibility, a card-index cabinet (CIC) task, and an interview. They were also presented with 2 sets of GCT pictures and with 5 nouns which were exposed 30% below their awareness threshold.
The results indicate that there are two cognitive styles, "reproducing literally," and "making additions,". The former characterizing exact subjects, the latter syncretizing and flexible subjects.

The results suggest that the combination of syncretism and flexibility results in creativity. Syncretizing-flexible subjects tended to use original methods in the CIC task and to be engaged in "creative work." Further, they tended to give original responses to the GCT.
The syncretism combined with flexibility, choice of a creative occupation, originality shown in the CIC task, and the use of additions are further connected with susceptibility to subliminal stimulation.


Jelley, G. C. (1988). The impact of subliminal oneness messages: A theoretical and empirical study, Georgia State U, Coll of Arts & Sciences, US.


Jennings, L.B. & George, S.G. (1975). Perceptual vigilance and defense revisited: Evidence against Blum's psychoanalytic theory of subliminal perception. Occidental College. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 41 (3), pp 723-729.

G.S. Blum's interpretation of psychoanalytic theory leads him to predict that subjects will defend against a threatening stimulus which is just below a recognition threshold and be vigilant toward the same stimulus when it is farther below the same threshold.

In this study, Luther Jennings and Stephen George presented the subjects with the same 4 Blacky pictures, at the same speed and illumination, and using the same procedure as Blum.
The results obtained offer no support for the theory of perceptual vigilance or defense.
The authors discuss the weaknesses inherent in Blum's theory and the supporting methodology.


John, C. H. (1989). Subliminal perception and the cognitive processing of emotion, U Reading, England.


Johnson, H. & Erikson, C.W. (1961). Preconscious prescription. A re-examination of the Poetzl phenomenon.

Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 62.


Jones, B. & Sollner, R. (1982). Recognition memory for dichotically presented word pairs in right and left handed males. Cortex, 18 (3)


Jus, A. & Jus, K. (1967). Neurophysiologic studies of the "unconscious" (thresholds of perception and elements of the "unconscious" in the production of conditioned reflexes. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr, 67 (12), pp 1809-1815. ISSN: DY9Y-000, Language: RUSSIAN.


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